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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Describe each of the following statements as true or false. If false, rewrite the sentence to make it correct.

  1. (a) The rate-determining elementary step in a reaction is the slowest step in a mechanism.
  2. (b) It is possible to change the rate constant by changing the temperature.
  3. (c) As a reaction proceeds at constant temperature, the rate remains constant.
  4. (d) A reaction that is third-order overall must involve more than one step.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given set of statements it should be identified that whether they are true or false and the false the statements are should be corrected.

Concept introduction:

Collision theory: The rate for the reaction is predicted by using collisions theory. In order to form bond the atoms present in the reactants should collide each other for the bond formation.

In order to establish the plausibility of a mechanism, one must compare the rate law of the rate determining step to the experimentally determined rate law.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step in which the rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

The rate of a reaction is defined by the change in concentration of substrate (reactant) or target (product) with change in time.

  Rate=Concentrationchange(inreactantorproduct)Timechange=(1a.Δ[A]Δt)=(1b.Δ[B]Δt)

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

Rate order: The order of each reactant in a reaction is represented by the exponential term of the respective reactant present in the rate law and the overall order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents of all reactants present in the chemical reaction. The order of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants.

Explanation

Reasons for true statements:

The statement in option (a) describes the rate determining step in the reaction. It explains the same that is the elementary step of a chemical reaction serves as the rate determining step since it is the slowest step in the reaction.

Rate determining step is defined as the slowest step in the step and hence the rate of the chemical reaction depends on the slowest step.

Next, the statement in option (b) describes that the rate constant gets changed as the temperature of the reaction gets altered.

The above statement is true since the rate of chemical reaction is one that denotes the decrease in concentration of the reactant with respect to time. As the temperature of the reaction increases the collisions between the successive reactants gets faster which leads to proceed the reaction faster with decreasing the activation energy hence the rate of the reaction gets changed with respect to the temperature settings of the reaction.

Therefore, the statements in option (a) and in option (b) are true statements...

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