   Chapter 14, Problem 96SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Identify which of the following statements are incorrect. If the statement is incorrect, rewrite it to be correct. (a) Reactions are faster at a higher temperature because activation energies are lower. (b) Rates increase with increasing concentration of reactants because there are more collisions between reactant molecules. (c) At higher temperatures, a larger fraction of molecules have enough energy to get over the activation energy barrier. (d) Catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions have identical mechanisms.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given set of statements it should be identified that whether they are incorrect and the false the statements are should be corrected.

Concept introduction:

The rate of a reaction is defined by the change in concentration of substrate (reactant) or target (product) with change in time.

Rate=Concentrationchange(inreactantorproduct)Timechange=(1a.Δ[A]Δt)=(1b.Δ[B]Δt)

Collision theory: The rate for the reaction is predicted by using collisions theory. In order to form bond the atoms present in the reactants should collide each other for the bond formation.

Rate law: It is generally the rate equation that consists of the reaction rate with the concentration or the pressures of the reactants and constant parameters.

Rate determining step: In a chemical reaction the rate determining step is the slowest step in which the rate of the reaction depends on the rate of that slowest step.

Activation energy: It is defined as the minimum energy required by the reacting species in order to undergo chemical reaction.

Rate constant: The rate constant for a chemical reaction is the proportionality term in the chemical reaction rate law which gives the relationship between the rate and the concentration of the reactant present in the chemical reaction.

Catalyst: The catalyst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of the reaction without participating in the reaction by reducing the activation energy of the reaction.

Explanation

Reasons for true statements:

The statement in option (b) describes the rate of the reaction depends on the concentrate of the reactants present in the reaction.

The above statement is a true statement since the rate definition explains it that rate is the decrease in the concentration of the reactant with respect to the time. As the concentration of the reactant increases there will be greater availability of reactant which can collide easily hence resulting increase in the reaction rate.

Next, the statement in option (c) describes that temperature increases the activation energy of the reaction gets overcome easily.

As the temperature increases the reactant gets enough energy to efficiently collide with each other and those collisions results in the reactant to cross over the large activation energy barrier easily and makes the reaction faster.

Therefore, the statements in option (b) and in option (c) are true statements.

Reasons for false statements:

The statement in option (a) describes that the rate of the reaction gets increases at high temperature because of the reason that activation energy gets lower...

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