# Which of the following increases an individual's cardiac output? 1. Epinephrine 2. Hypovolemia 3. Mechanical ventilation 4. Hyperthermia A. 1 only B. 2 only C. 3 only D. 1 and 4 only

### Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337794909

### Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337794909

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 15, Problem 11RQ
Textbook Problem

## Which of the following increases an individual's cardiac output?1. Epinephrine2. Hypovolemia3. Mechanical ventilation4. HyperthermiaA. 1 onlyB. 2 onlyC. 3 onlyD. 1 and 4 only

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The cardiac output in an individual represents the amount of blood that can be pumped by the heart in a minute. The cardiac output of a healthy individual ranges from 4500-8000 mL/min. It depends on both, the stroke volume (amount of blood pumped by the heart in each contraction) and the heart rate (number of times the heart beats in a minute). The cardiac output is altered by a change in the stroke volume caused by various physiological conditions and drug intake.

### Explanation of Solution

Justifications/ Explanations for the correct answer:

Option (d) is given as 1 and 4 only. Epinephrine is a positive inotropic drug produced by medulla that can increase the contractibility of the heart muscles by the means of vasoconstriction. This will lead to an increase in the stroke volume and thus, the cardiac output is also increased.

Hyperthermia is an abnormal condition of the human body that leads to extremely high temperature. It is caused by the failure of the thermoregulatory system to maintain physiological temperature. The increase in temperature increases the blood flow that ultimately leads to an increase in the stroke volume. Thus, cardiac output is also increased. Hence, option (d) is correct.

Option (a) is given as 1 only. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic hormone produced by the medulla that can stimulate the rhythmic contractions of the heart by the means of vasoconstriction...

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