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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909
Textbook Problem

Pulmonary vascular resistance increases in response to

1. Acidemia

2. Oxygen

3. Mechanical ventilation

4. Epinephrine

A. 2 only

B. 3 only

C. 1 and 3 only

D. 1, 3, and 4 only

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The vascular resistance is observed in the blood flowing through the systemic and the pulmonary vascular system. The resistance to the pulmonary vascular system is lower as compared to the systemic vascular system. The pulmonary vascular resistance reflects the pressure of the right ventricle against which the heart must work to remove blood (afterload) during systole.

Explanation

Justifications/ Explanations for the correct answer:

Option (d) is given as 1, 3 and 4 only. The pulmonary vascular resistance increases in response to acidemia, mechanical ventilation, and epinephrine. The decrease in pH or acidemia leads to an increase in pulmonary vasoconstriction which resists the pulmonary blood flow, ultimately leading to an increase in the pulmonary vascular resistance.

The mechanical ventilation involves ventilation of the lungs by artificial means. The mechanical ventilation may lead to hyperinflation of lungs. This causes the ventilation-perfusion ratio to increase resulting in a decrease of pulmonary capillary blood flow. This ultimately leads to increase in vascular resistance.

The pharmacological drugs such as epinephrine cause the vasoconstriction of heart muscles which leads to an increased stroke volume and thus, increased cardiac output on the venous side. The vasoconstriction restricts the pulmonary blood flow out from the heart on the artrial side, leading to an increase in the pulmonary vascular resistance. Hence, option (d) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answer:

Option (a) is given as 2 only...

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