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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079
Chapter 15, Problem 15.21EP
Textbook Problem
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Indicate whether each of the amino acids in Problem 26-19 can or cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts adequate to meet the body’s needs.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify whether lysine can or cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts adequate to meet the body’s needs.

Concept introduction: Amino acids are the main building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are classified as essential and non-essential depending upon whether they can be synthesized within the body itself or not.

Essential amino acids are those amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body via biosynthesis and thus must be taken from the outside in form of dietary protein to meet the body’s need. Those amino acids which can be synthesized by biosynthesis within the liver are termed as non-essential amino acids.

The essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

The non-essential amino acids are alanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

Explanation of Solution

There are 20 amino acids present in nature. Out of which 10 are essential amino acids and 10 are non-essential.

Lysine is an essential amino acid...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify whether cysteine can or cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts adequate to meet the body’s needs.

Concept introduction: Amino acids are the main building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are classified as essential and non-essential depending upon whether they can be synthesized within the body itself or not.

Essential amino acids are those amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body via biosynthesis and thus must be taken from the outside in form of dietary protein to meet the body’s need. Those amino acids which can be synthesized by biosynthesis within the liver are termed as non-essential amino acids.

The essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

The non-essential amino acids are alanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify whether serine can or cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts adequate to meet the body’s needs.

Concept introduction: Amino acids are the main building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are classified as essential and non-essential depending upon whether they can be synthesized within the body itself or not.

Essential amino acids are those amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body via biosynthesis and thus must be taken from the outside in form of dietary protein to meet the body’s need. Those amino acids which can be synthesized by biosynthesis within the liver are termed as non-essential amino acids.

The essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

The non-essential amino acids are alanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify whether tryptophan can or cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts adequate to meet the body’s needs.

Concept introduction: Amino acids are the main building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are classified as essential and non-essential depending upon whether they can be synthesized within the body itself or not.

Essential amino acids are those amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body via biosynthesis and thus must be taken from the outside in form of dietary protein to meet the body’s need. Those amino acids which can be synthesized by biosynthesis within the liver are termed as non-essential amino acids.

The essential amino acids are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

The non-essential amino acids are alanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

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Chapter 15 Solutions

Organic And Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 15.3 - The nitrogen-containing product of an oxidative...Ch. 15.3 - A derivative of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is...Ch. 15.3 - Most aminotransferases are specific for the keto...Ch. 15.4 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 15.4 - Which of the following is not a reactant in the...Ch. 15.4 - The two fuels for the urea cycle are a. carbamoyl...Ch. 15.4 - Which of the following is the correct nitrogen...Ch. 15.4 - The two nitrogen atoms in a urea molecule have as...Ch. 15.4 - In the urea cycle, the urea-producing step...Ch. 15.5 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 15.5 - How many standard amino acid carbon skeleton...Ch. 15.5 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 15.5 - Which of the following pairings of standard amino...Ch. 15.6 - The classification of an amino acid as essential...Ch. 15.6 - How many of the standard amino acids are...Ch. 15.6 - The simplest pathways for amino acid biosynthesis...Ch. 15.7 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 15.7 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 15.7 - In the degradation of heme, which of the following...Ch. 15.7 - In the degradation of heme, the iron atom present...Ch. 15.8 - In degradation of the sulfur-containing amino acid...Ch. 15.8 - The process of sulfate assimulation converts SO42...Ch. 15.8 - In the first step of the sulfate assimilation...Ch. 15.8 - A nonmetabolic function for hydrogen sulfide is...Ch. 15.9 - Fumarate produced during urea cycle operation is...Ch. 15.9 - Oxaloacetate produced during citric acid cycle...Ch. 15.9 - For which of the following human body conditions...Ch. 15.10 - Transamination reactions require the cofactor PLP...Ch. 15.10 - Oxidative deamination reactions require the...Ch. 15.10 - How many of the B vitamins are needed in the...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - Contrast the partially digested protein mixture in...Ch. 15 - Contrast the partially digested protein mixture in...Ch. 15 - In the context of protein digestion, indicate...Ch. 15 - In the context of protein digestion, indicate...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the substances in Problem...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the substances in Problem...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following situations...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following situations...Ch. 15 - What are the three major sources of amino acids...Ch. 15 - What are the four major uses for amino acids...Ch. 15 - With the help of Table 26-1, classify each of the...Ch. 15 - With the help of Table 26-1, classify each of the...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the amino acids in...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the amino acids in...Ch. 15 - In general terms, what two types of compounds are...Ch. 15 - In general terms, what two types of compounds are...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the compounds in Problem...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the compounds in Problem...Ch. 15 - Write structural equations for the transamination...Ch. 15 - Write structural equations for the transamination...Ch. 15 - For each of the following pairs of compounds,...Ch. 15 - For each of the following pairs of compounds,...Ch. 15 - For each of the following pairs of compounds,...Ch. 15 - For each of the following pairs of compounds,...Ch. 15 - What are the two -keto acids that are most often...Ch. 15 - What are the two -keto acids that are most often...Ch. 15 - What is the overall purpose for the transamination...Ch. 15 - What distinction does glutamate have in the...Ch. 15 - What is the function of pyridoxal phosphate in...Ch. 15 - Which one of the B vitamins is important in the...Ch. 15 - In the further processing of glutamate via...Ch. 15 - In the further processing of glutamate via a...Ch. 15 - Draw the structure of the -keto acid produced from...Ch. 15 - Draw the structure of the -keto acid produced from...Ch. 15 - Characterize each of the following as a possible...Ch. 15 - Characterize each of the following as a possible...Ch. 15 - What are the two nitrogen-containing entities that...Ch. 15 - What are the two fuels for the urea cycle?Ch. 15 - Which of the two urea cycle fuels enters the cycle...Ch. 15 - Which of the two urea cycle fuels was produced via...Ch. 15 - What is the desired end product of urea cycle...Ch. 15 - What happens to the desired end product of urea...Ch. 15 - What is the chemical structure of the desired end...Ch. 15 - What are selected physical properties of the...Ch. 15 - What is a carbamoyl group?Ch. 15 - What is the chemical structure of carbamoyl...Ch. 15 - What are the chemical reactants needed to produce...Ch. 15 - What chemical products besides carbamoyl phosphate...Ch. 15 - What are the names of the two standard amino acids...Ch. 15 - What are the names of the two nonstandard amino...Ch. 15 - Characterize each of the following urea cycle...Ch. 15 - Characterize each of the following urea cycle...Ch. 15 - In each of the following pairs of compounds...Ch. 15 - In each of the following pairs of compounds...Ch. 15 - In which step of the urea cycle does each of the...Ch. 15 - In which step of the urea cycle does each of the...Ch. 15 - Which step(s) of the urea cycle occur in the...Ch. 15 - Which step(s) of the urea cycle occur in the cell...Ch. 15 - How much energy, in terms of ATP consumption, is...Ch. 15 - In which steps, if any, of the urea cycle is a....Ch. 15 - What is the fate of the fumarate formed in the...Ch. 15 - Explain how the urea cycle is linked to the citric...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 15 - Classify each of the following nitrogen-containing...Ch. 15 - Classify each of the following nitrogen-containing...Ch. 15 - What are the four possible degradation products of...Ch. 15 - What are the three possible degradation products...Ch. 15 - With the help of Figure 26-9, write the name of...Ch. 15 - With the help of Figure 26-9, write the name of...Ch. 15 - With the help of Figure 26-9, classify each of the...Ch. 15 - With the help of Figure 26-9, classify each of the...Ch. 15 - What degradation characteristics do all purely...Ch. 15 - What degradation characteristics do all purely...Ch. 15 - What are the five starting materials for the...Ch. 15 - What is a major difference between the...Ch. 15 - What is the starting material for the biosynthesis...Ch. 15 - What is the starting material for the biosynthesis...Ch. 15 - Which four nonessential amino acids can be...Ch. 15 - Which five nonessential amino acids can be...Ch. 15 - What happens to the globin produced from the...Ch. 15 - What happens to the iron (Fe2+) produced from the...Ch. 15 - What are the structural differences between heme...Ch. 15 - What are the structural differences between...Ch. 15 - Arrange the following substances in the order in...Ch. 15 - Carbon monoxide is a by-product of the degradation...Ch. 15 - Which bile pigment is responsible for the yellow...Ch. 15 - Which bile pigment is responsible for the...Ch. 15 - What chemical condition is responsible for...Ch. 15 - What physical conditions cause jaundice?Ch. 15 - Which of the heme degradation products (1)...Ch. 15 - Which of the heme degradation products (1)...Ch. 15 - In which of the processes (1) urea cycle, (2) heme...Ch. 15 - In which of the processes (1) urea cycle, (2) heme...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 15 - In the process called sulfate assimilation what...Ch. 15 - In the process called sulfate assimilation what...Ch. 15 - What molecule is the connecting link from the urea...Ch. 15 - What two molecules are involved in the connecting...Ch. 15 - Briefly explain how the carbon atoms from amino...Ch. 15 - Briefly explain how the carbon atoms from amino...Ch. 15 - How are the amino acids from protein processed...Ch. 15 - How are the amino acids from protein processed...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamins...Ch. 15 - Indicate whether each of the following B vitamins...

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