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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909
Textbook Problem

An individual's pulmonary vascular resistance decreases in response to

1. Bradykinin

2. Emphysema

3. Norepinephrine

4. Hypercapnia

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. 3 and 4 only

D. 2 and 3 only

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The pulmonary vascular resistance represents the pressure on the right ventricle, against which, the heart must pump to remove blood (afterload) during systole. It is altered by many factors, including chemical stimuli, drugs, lungs hyperinflation, immunogenic substances, and pathological factors.

Explanation

Justifications/ Explanations for the correct answer:

Option (a) is given as 1 only. An individual pulmonary vascular resistance decreases in response to bradykinin. It is a non-peptide chemical that mediates vasodilation of blood vessels in the heart and thus, increases the blood flow in capillaries supplied by pulmonary blood. This results in an increased cardiac output and a decrease in the pulmonary vascular resistance. Hence, option (a) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answer:

Option (b) is given as 2 only. Emphysema is a chronic lung disorder in which alveoli are damaged, decreasing both the alveolar perfusion and ventilation. The exchange of gases in the body is severely impaired, leading to pulmonary vasoconstriction and ventricular dysfunction which causes the vascular resistance to increase. So, it is incorrect.

Option (c) is given as 3 and 4 only. Nor-epinephrine drugs causes vasoconstriction of cardiac muscles which leads to decreased blood flow to the pulmonary capillaries and as a result, vascular resistance increases...

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