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A nonionic detergent has the following formula: CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 —O—CH 2 CH 2 OH The detergent works well at dissolving grease but has limited solubility water. Which change would most likely make the detergent more water soluble? lengthening the hydrocarbon chain shortening the hydrocarbon chain eliminating the oxygen atoms from the structure

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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 15, Problem 1SC
Textbook Problem
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A nonionic detergent has the following formula:

CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 —O—CH 2 CH 2 OH

The detergent works well at dissolving grease but has limited solubility water. Which change would most likely make the detergent more water soluble?

lengthening the hydrocarbon chain

shortening the hydrocarbon chain

eliminating the oxygen atoms from the structure

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The change that will make the detergent more soluble in water is to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Detergent is a synthetic water-soluble or liquid organic formation that combines with impurities and dirt to make them more soluble. It is chemically different from soaps in not forming scum, but is able to emulsify oils, hold dirt in suspension, and act as wetting agents. Nonionic detergents are nonpolar and help the compound to be more soluble in water.

Explanation of Solution

Reason for correct option:

Nonionic detergents are the class of synthetic detergents that are neither cationic nor anionic. Nonionic detergents are obtained by condensation reaction having a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail, generally a hydroxyl group, with an ethylene oxide or propylene oxide.

The most common compounds used are either alkyl phenol or a long-chain alcohol having a hydroxyl group, which is present at the end of the molecule. The length of this chain and the structure of the alkyl phenol or alcohol decides the properties of the detergent. Nonionic detergents with short hydrocarbon chain, which are high nonpolar, are very useful toward hard water...

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Chapter 15 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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