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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Why does the process of vaporization require an input of energy? Why is it so important that water has a large heat of vaporization? What is condensation? Explain how the processes of vaporization and condensation represent an equilibrium in a closed container. Define the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid. Describe how this pressure arises in a closed container. Describe an experiment that demonstrates vapor pressure and enables us to measure the magnitude of that pressure, how is the magnitude of a liquid’s vapor pressure related to the intermolecular forces in the liquid?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason as to why the process of vaporization requires an input of energy is to be stated. The reason as to why it is important that water has a large heat of vaporization is to be stated. The definition of condensation is to be stated. The explanation corresponding to the given statement that is the process of vaporization and condensation represent equilibrium in a closed container is to be stated. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is to be defined. An explanation for the increase of pressure in a closed container is to be stated. An experiment that demonstrates vapor pressure and aids in measuring the magnitude of heat pressure is to be described. An explanation for the magnitude of liquid’s vapor pressure related to the intermolecular forces in the liquid is to be stated.

Concept Introduction:

There are two types of forces that exist between the molecules. These forces are intermolecular and intramolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are always present between the two or more molecules, whereas intramolecular forces are present within the same molecule.

Explanation

The process of conversion of liquid state of the molecule into its gaseous state is referred to as vaporization. The intermolecular forces are stronger in liquid as compared to gaseous state. Hence, an input of energy is needed to overcome the intermolecular forces present in liquid molecules.

Water is a liquid molecule. Water molecules combine with each other by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is considered as the strong bonding. As a result, high heat of vaporization is required so that liquid molecule can escape easily from the surface of water. Therefore, it is important that water has high heat of vaporization because the strong hydrogen bonding is present among water molecules.

The condensation is opposite to that of vaporization. Hence, the process of conversion of gas state of the molecule into its liquid state is referred to as condensation.

In a closed container, the equilibrium state is attained when the rate of vaporization and the rate of condensation become equal. At the equilibrium state, the number of molecules of liquid and vapors remain the same. The process of vaporization continues until the rate of vaporization becomes equal to rate of condensation...

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Chapter 15 Solutions

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Sect-15.8 P-15.10SCSect-15.8 P-15.11SCCh-15 P-1ALQCh-15 P-2ALQCh-15 P-3ALQCh-15 P-4ALQCh-15 P-5ALQCh-15 P-6ALQCh-15 P-7ALQCh-15 P-8ALQCh-15 P-9ALQCh-15 P-10ALQCh-15 P-11ALQCh-15 P-12ALQCh-15 P-13ALQCh-15 P-14ALQCh-15 P-1QAPCh-15 P-2QAPCh-15 P-3QAPCh-15 P-4QAPCh-15 P-5QAPCh-15 P-6QAPCh-15 P-7QAPCh-15 P-8QAPCh-15 P-9QAPCh-15 P-10QAPCh-15 P-11QAPCh-15 P-12QAPCh-15 P-13QAPCh-15 P-14QAPCh-15 P-15QAPCh-15 P-16QAPCh-15 P-17QAPCh-15 P-18QAPCh-15 P-19QAPCh-15 P-20QAPCh-15 P-21QAPCh-15 P-22QAPCh-15 P-23QAPCh-15 P-24QAPCh-15 P-25QAPCh-15 P-26QAPCh-15 P-27QAPCh-15 P-28QAPCh-15 P-29QAPCh-15 P-30QAPCh-15 P-31QAPCh-15 P-32QAPCh-15 P-33QAPCh-15 P-34QAPCh-15 P-35QAPCh-15 P-36QAPCh-15 P-37QAPCh-15 P-38QAPCh-15 P-39QAPCh-15 P-40QAPCh-15 P-41QAPCh-15 P-42QAPCh-15 P-43QAPCh-15 P-44QAPCh-15 P-45QAPCh-15 P-46QAPCh-15 P-47QAPCh-15 P-48QAPCh-15 P-49QAPCh-15 P-50QAPCh-15 P-51QAPCh-15 P-52QAPCh-15 P-53QAPCh-15 P-54QAPCh-15 P-55QAPCh-15 P-56QAPCh-15 P-57QAPCh-15 P-58QAPCh-15 P-59QAPCh-15 P-60QAPCh-15 P-61QAPCh-15 P-62QAPCh-15 P-63QAPCh-15 P-64QAPCh-15 P-65QAPCh-15 P-66QAPCh-15 P-67QAPCh-15 P-68QAPCh-15 P-69QAPCh-15 P-70QAPCh-15 P-71QAPCh-15 P-72QAPCh-15 P-73QAPCh-15 P-74QAPCh-15 P-75QAPCh-15 P-76QAPCh-15 P-77QAPCh-15 P-78QAPCh-15 P-79QAPCh-15 P-80QAPCh-15 P-81QAPCh-15 P-82QAPCh-15 P-83QAPCh-15 P-84QAPCh-15 P-85QAPCh-15 P-86QAPCh-15 P-87QAPCh-15 P-88QAPCh-15 P-89APCh-15 P-90APCh-15 P-91APCh-15 P-92APCh-15 P-93APCh-15 P-94APCh-15 P-95APCh-15 P-96APCh-15 P-97APCh-15 P-98APCh-15 P-99APCh-15 P-100APCh-15 P-101APCh-15 P-102APCh-15 P-103APCh-15 P-104APCh-15 P-105APCh-15 P-106APCh-15 P-107APCh-15 P-108APCh-15 P-109APCh-15 P-110APCh-15 P-111APCh-15 P-112APCh-15 P-113APCh-15 P-114APCh-15 P-115APCh-15 P-116APCh-15 P-117APCh-15 P-118APCh-15 P-119APCh-15 P-120APCh-15 P-121APCh-15 P-122APCh-15 P-123APCh-15 P-124APCh-15 P-125APCh-15 P-126APCh-15 P-127APCh-15 P-128APCh-15 P-129APCh-15 P-130APCh-15 P-131APCh-15 P-132APCh-15 P-133APCh-15 P-134APCh-15 P-135APCh-15 P-136APCh-15 P-137CPCh-15 P-138CPCh-15 P-139CPCh-15 P-140CPCh-15 P-141CPCh-15 P-142CPCh-15 P-143CPCh-15 P-1CRCh-15 P-2CRCh-15 P-3CRCh-15 P-4CRCh-15 P-5CRCh-15 P-6CRCh-15 P-7CRCh-15 P-8CRCh-15 P-9CRCh-15 P-10CRCh-15 P-11CRCh-15 P-12CRCh-15 P-13CRCh-15 P-14CRCh-15 P-15CRCh-15 P-16CRCh-15 P-17CRCh-15 P-18CRCh-15 P-19CRCh-15 P-20CRCh-15 P-21CRCh-15 P-22CRCh-15 P-23CRCh-15 P-24CRCh-15 P-25CRCh-15 P-26CRCh-15 P-27CRCh-15 P-28CRCh-15 P-29CRCh-15 P-30CRCh-15 P-31CRCh-15 P-32CRCh-15 P-33CRCh-15 P-34CRCh-15 P-35CRCh-15 P-36CRCh-15 P-37CRCh-15 P-38CRCh-15 P-39CRCh-15 P-40CRCh-15 P-41CRCh-15 P-42CR

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