Chapter 15, Problem 22P

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8th Edition

Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other

ISBN: 9781133956570

Textbook Problem

Although the phenomenon is not well understood, it appears that people born during the winter months are slightly more likely to develop schizophrenia than people born at other times (Bradbury & Miller, 1985). The following hypothetical data represent a sample of 50 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and a sample of 100 people with no psychotic diagnosis. Each individual is also classified according to the season in which he or she was born. Do the data indicate a significant relationship between schizophrenia and the season of birth? Test at the .05 level of significance.

Season of Birth | |||||

Summer | Fall | Winter | Spring | ||

No Disorder | 26 | 24 | 22 | 28 | 100 |

Schizophrenia | 9 | 11 | 18 | 12 | 50 |

35 | 35 | 40 | 40 |

To determine

**To Find:** If there is a significant relationship between schizophrenia and the season of birth.

Explanation

**Given info:**

A sample of 150 participants were involved in a study. The distribution is given in the question. Use

Summer | Fall | Winter | Spring | total | |

No disorder | 26 | 24 | 22 | 28 | 100 |

schizophrenia | 9 | 11 | 18 | 12 | 50 |

Total | 35 | 35 | 40 | 40 | 150 |

**Calculations:**

Step 1: Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis are:

Step 2: For the given sample, degrees of freedom equals:

With

Step 3:

The formula to calculate expected frequency is:

Substitute

For the row 1, the expected frequencies are:

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