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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Kp for the following reaction is 0.16 at 25 °C:

2 NOBr(g) ⇄ 2 NO(g) + Br2(g)

The enthalpy change for the reaction at standard conditions is + 16.3 kJ/mol-rxn. Predict the effect of the following changes on the position of the equilibrium; that is, state which way the equilibrium will shift (left, right, or no change) when each of the following changes is made.

  1. (a) adding more Br2(g)
  2. (b) removing some NOBr(g)
  3. (c) decreasing the temperature
  4. (d) increasing the container volume

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The effect of the given changes on the position of the equilibrium of given reaction has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

  • Chemical equilibrium: The term applied to reversible chemical reactions. It is the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. The equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations of reactants and products become constant.
  • Equilibrium constant: At equilibrium the ratio of products to reactants has a constant value. And it is represented by the letter K. 

    For a general reaction, aA+bBcC+dD

    The equilibrium constant Kp = (PC)c (PD)d(PA)a(PB)b, where a, b, c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients of reactant and product in the reaction. P is the equilibrium pressure.

  • Concentration =AmountofsubstanceVolume
  • Le Chatelier’s principle states that if a system in chemical equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance (in concentration, pressure, temperature..,) it tends to change in a way that opposes this disturbance.
  • Forward Reaction: This type of reaction has involved irreversible, if obtained product cannot be converted back in to respective reactants under the same conditions. Backward Reaction: This type of reaction process involved a reversible, if the products can be converted into a back to reactants.
  • In an endothermic reaction there is a net abortion of energy.
Explanation

The balanced equation for the given reaction is, 

                                           2NOBr(g)2NO(g)+Br2(g)     

Kp For the reaction is 0.16at250C

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The effect of the given changes on the position of the equilibrium of given reaction has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

  • Chemical equilibrium: The term applied to reversible chemical reactions. It is the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. The equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations of reactants and products become constant.
  • Equilibrium constant: At equilibrium the ratio of products to reactants has a constant value. And it is represented by the letter K. 

    For a general reaction, aA+bBcC+dD

    The equilibrium constant Kp = (PC)c (PD)d(PA)a(PB)b, where a, b, c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients of reactant and product in the reaction. P is the equilibrium pressure.

  • Concentration =AmountofsubstanceVolume
  • Le Chatelier’s principle states that if a system in chemical equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance (in concentration, pressure, temperature..,) it tends to change in a way that opposes this disturbance.
  • Forward Reaction: This type of reaction has involved irreversible, if obtained product cannot be converted back in to respective reactants under the same conditions. Backward Reaction: This type of reaction process involved a reversible, if the products can be converted into a back to reactants.
  • In an endothermic reaction there is a net abortion of energy.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The effect of the given changes on the position of the equilibrium of given reaction has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

  • Chemical equilibrium: The term applied to reversible chemical reactions. It is the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. The equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations of reactants and products become constant.
  • Equilibrium constant: At equilibrium the ratio of products to reactants has a constant value. And it is represented by the letter K. 

    For a general reaction, aA+bBcC+dD

    The equilibrium constant Kp = (PC)c (PD)d(PA)a(PB)b, where a, b, c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients of reactant and product in the reaction. P is the equilibrium pressure.

  • Concentration =AmountofsubstanceVolume
  • Le Chatelier’s principle states that if a system in chemical equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance (in concentration, pressure, temperature..,) it tends to change in a way that opposes this disturbance.
  • Forward Reaction: This type of reaction has involved irreversible, if obtained product cannot be converted back in to respective reactants under the same conditions. Backward Reaction: This type of reaction process involved a reversible, if the products can be converted into a back to reactants.
  • In an endothermic reaction there is a net abortion of energy.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The effect of the given changes on the position of the equilibrium of given reaction has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

  • Chemical equilibrium: The term applied to reversible chemical reactions. It is the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. The equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations of reactants and products become constant.
  • Equilibrium constant: At equilibrium the ratio of products to reactants has a constant value. And it is represented by the letter K. 

    For a general reaction, aA+bBcC+dD

    The equilibrium constant Kp = (PC)c (PD)d(PA)a(PB)b, where a, b, c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients of reactant and product in the reaction. P is the equilibrium pressure.

  • Concentration =AmountofsubstanceVolume
  • Le Chatelier’s principle states that if a system in chemical equilibrium is subjected to a disturbance (in concentration, pressure, temperature..,) it tends to change in a way that opposes this disturbance.
  • Forward Reaction: This type of reaction has involved irreversible, if obtained product cannot be converted back in to respective reactants under the same conditions. Backward Reaction: This type of reaction process involved a reversible, if the products can be converted into a back to reactants.
  • In an endothermic reaction there is a net abortion of energy.

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