   Chapter 15, Problem 41GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Heating a metal carbonate leads to decomposition.BaCO3(s) ⇄ BaO(s) + CO2(g)Predict the effect on the equilibrium of each change listed below. Answer by choosing (i) no change, (ii) shifts left or (iii) shifts right. (a) add BaCO3 (b) add CO2 (c) add BaO (d) raise the temperature (e) increase the volume of the flask containing the reaction

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The effect on the equilibrium if BaCO3 is added in the reaction of heating of barium carbonate is to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Le Chatelier’s principle: If an equilibrium is disturbed by changing conditions, the system will moves the equilibrium to reverse the change.

Factor’s that effect chemical equilibria:

Concentration – Equilibrium will be affected by changing the concentration of reactant or product. If we increase the concentration of reactant system will try to reverse the change by favouring forward reaction and thus increase the concentration of products. Like wise adding products increase yield of reactants.

Temperature – When the temperature increases equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction, in the direction that absorbs heat. When the temperature decreases equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction, in the direction that releases heat.

Pressure – If the reaction consists of only liquid and solid reactants and products, pressure has no effect in the equilibrium.

In gas reactions if the number of moles has no change then there will be no effect by pressure on equilibrium.

If pressure increases then equilibrium will shift to the direction having less number of molecules and if pressure decreases system will shift to the direction having more number of molecules.

Explanation

Given reaction:

BaCO3(s)BaO(s)+CO2 <

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The effect on the equilibrium when CO2 is added in the reaction of heating of barium carbonate is to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Le Chatelier’s principle: If an equilibrium is disturbed by changing conditions, the system will moves the equilibrium to reverse the change.

Factor’s that effect chemical equilibria:

Concentration – Equilibrium will be affected by changing the concentration of reactant or product. If we increase the concentration of reactant system will try to reverse the change by favouring forward reaction and thus increase the concentration of products. Like wise adding products increase yield of reactants.

Temperature – When the temperature increases equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction, in the direction that absorbs heat. When the temperature decreases equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction, in the direction that releases heat.

Pressure – If the reaction consists of only liquid and solid reactants and products, pressure has no effect in the equilibrium.

In gas reactions if the number of moles has no change then there will be no effect by pressure on equilibrium.

If pressure increases then equilibrium will shift to the direction having less number of molecules and if pressure decreases system will shift to the direction having more number of molecules.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The effect on the equilibrium when BaO is added in the reaction of heating of barium carbonate is to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Le Chatelier’s principle: If an equilibrium is disturbed by changing conditions, the system will moves the equilibrium to reverse the change.

Factor’s that effect chemical equilibria:

Concentration – Equilibrium will be affected by changing the concentration of reactant or product. If we increase the concentration of reactant system will try to reverse the change by favouring forward reaction and thus increase the concentration of products. Like wise adding products increase yield of reactants.

Temperature – When the temperature increases equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction, in the direction that absorbs heat. When the temperature decreases equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction, in the direction that releases heat.

Pressure – If the reaction consists of only liquid and solid reactants and products, pressure has no effect in the equilibrium.

In gas reactions if the number of moles has no change then there will be no effect by pressure on equilibrium.

If pressure increases then equilibrium will shift to the direction having less number of molecules and if pressure decreases system will shift to the direction having more number of molecules.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The effect on the equilibrium when temperature is raised in the reaction of heating of barium carbonate is to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Le Chatelier’s principle: If an equilibrium is disturbed by changing conditions, the system will moves the equilibrium to reverse the change.

Factor’s that effect chemical equilibria:

Concentration – Equilibrium will be affected by changing the concentration of reactant or product. If we increase the concentration of reactant system will try to reverse the change by favouring forward reaction and thus increase the concentration of products. Like wise adding products increase yield of reactants.

Temperature – When the temperature increases equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction, in the direction that absorbs heat. When the temperature decreases equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction, in the direction that releases heat.

Pressure – If the reaction consists of only liquid and solid reactants and products, pressure has no effect in the equilibrium.

In gas reactions if the number of moles has no change then there will be no effect by pressure on equilibrium.

If pressure increases then equilibrium will shift to the direction having less number of molecules and if pressure decreases system will shift to the direction having more number of molecules.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The effect on the equilibrium when volume of the flask is increased in the reaction of heating of barium carbonate is to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Le Chatelier’s principle: If an equilibrium is disturbed by changing conditions, the system will moves the equilibrium to reverse the change.

Factor’s that effect chemical equilibria:

Concentration – Equilibrium will be affected by changing the concentration of reactant or product. If we increase the concentration of reactant system will try to reverse the change by favouring forward reaction and thus increase the concentration of products. Like wise adding products increase yield of reactants.

Temperature – When the temperature increases equilibrium will shift in the endothermic direction, in the direction that absorbs heat. When the temperature decreases equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction, in the direction that releases heat.

Pressure – If the reaction consists of only liquid and solid reactants and products, pressure has no effect in the equilibrium.

In gas reactions if the number of moles has no change then there will be no effect by pressure on equilibrium.

If pressure increases then equilibrium will shift to the direction having less number of molecules and if pressure decreases system will shift to the direction having more number of molecules.

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