   Chapter 16, Problem 107GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

To what volume should 1.00 × 102 mL of any weak acid, HA, with a concentration 0.20 M be diluted to double the percentage ionization?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The volume has to be determined when diluted to double the percentage of ionization.

Concept introduction:

Equilibrium constants:

The equilibrium constant is used to quantitative measurement of the strength of the acid and bases in the water.

Ka is an acid constant for equilibrium reactions.

HA + H2OH3O++ A-Ka[H3O+][A-][HA]

Kb is base constant for equilibrium reaction.

BOH + H2OB++ OH-Ka[B+][OH-][BOH]

Explanation

The equlibrium chemical reaction is as follows.

HAH++A-

HA  H++A-Equilibrium(M)   C(1-α)        α     α

Hence,

Ka[H+][A-][HA]αC×αCC(1-α)α2C1-α

Kaα2C1- α (1)

From the given,

V =1.0×102 mLConcentration = 0.20 M

Substitute the values in the equation (1)

C= 0.20 mol1.0×1021000L = 2 M

From equation (1)

Kaα2C1- αKaα2(2)1- α

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