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Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079373

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079373
Chapter 16, Problem 10QAP
Textbook Problem
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Predict the sign of ΔS for the following:

(a) precipitating solid AgCl from a solution containing Ag+ and Cl- ions

(b) dissolving sugar in hot coffee

(c) glass turning into sand

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The sign of the entropy change for the following process should be predicted.

Precipitating of solid silver chloride from a solution containing silver ion and chloride ions

Concept introduction:

Entropy is defined as the ratio of thermal energy to the temperature which is unavailable for work done. It is also defined as the measure of disorder of molecule of a system. It is an extensive property and state function.

Entropy is related with the number of microstates for a system and microstate is defined as the number of ways for the system to be arranged. In different physical states, entropy depends upon the phase of the substance; the order of the entropy is given by: Ssolid<Sliquid<Sgas

The change in entropy is represented as:

ΔS=SfinalSinitial

Where, Sinitial =initial entropy and Sfinal = final entropy

The sign of the entropy should be predicted with the help of above information.

Explanation of Solution

Given process is: Precipitating of solid silver chloride from a solution containing silver ion and chloride ion.

In this case, the solution which contains silver ion and chloride ion has more disorder in comparison to precipitate silver chloride...

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The sign of the entropy change for the following process should be predicted.

Dissolving sugar in hot coffee

Concept introduction:

Entropy is defined as the ratio of thermal energy to the temperature which is unavailable for work done. It is also defined as the measure of disorder of molecule of a system. It is an extensive property and state function.

Entropy is related with the number of microstates for a system and microstate is defined as the number of ways for the system to be arranged. In different physical states, entropy depends upon the phase of the substance; the order of the entropy is given by: Ssolid<Sliquid<Sgas

The change in entropy is represented as:

ΔS=SfinalSinitial

Where, Sinitial =initial entropy and Sfinal = final entropy

The sign of the entropy should be predicted with the help of above information.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The sign of the entropy change for the following process should be predicted with reason.

Glass turning into sand

Concept introduction:

Entropy is defined as the ratio of thermal energy to the temperature which is unavailable for work done. It is also defined as the measure of disorder of molecule of a system. It is an extensive property and state function.

Entropy is related with the number of microstates for a system and microstate is defined as the number of ways for the system to be arranged. In different physical states, entropy depends upon the phase of the substance; the order of the entropy is given by: Ssolid<Sliquid<Sgas

The change in entropy is represented as:

ΔS=SfinalSinitial

Where, Sinitial =initial entropy and Sfinal = final entropy

The sign of the entropy should be predicted with the help of above information.

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Chapter 16 Solutions

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions
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Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the order of the following reactions in...Ch. 16 - Predict the order of the following reactions in...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Use Table 16.1 to calculate S for each of the...Ch. 16 - Calculate G at 82C for reactions in which (a)...Ch. 16 - Calculate G at 72C for reactions in which (a)...Ch. 16 - Calculate G at 355 K for each of the reactions in...Ch. 16 - Calculate G at 415 K for each of the reactions in...Ch. 16 - From the values for G f given in Appendix 1,...Ch. 16 - Follow the directions of Problem 27 for each of...Ch. 16 - Use standard entropies and heats of formation to...Ch. 16 - Follow the directions of Question 29 for the...Ch. 16 - It has been proposed that wood alcohol, CH3OH, a...Ch. 16 - A student warned his friends not to swim in a...Ch. 16 - Sodium carbonate, also called washing soda, can be...Ch. 16 - The reaction between magnesium metal and water (l)...Ch. 16 - In the laboratory, POCl3 (phosphorus oxychloride)...Ch. 16 - Oxygen can be made in the laboratory by reacting...Ch. 16 - Phosgene, COCl2, can be formed by the reaction of...Ch. 16 - When permanganate ions in aqueous solution react...Ch. 16 - Discuss the effect of temperature change on the...Ch. 16 - Discuss the effect of temperature on the...Ch. 16 - At what temperature does G become zero for each of...Ch. 16 - Over what temperature range are the reactions in...Ch. 16 - For the reaction...Ch. 16 - For the reaction...Ch. 16 - For the decomposition of Ag2O:...Ch. 16 - Consider the following hypothetical equation...Ch. 16 - Two possible ways of producing iron from iron ore...Ch. 16 - Manganese is a metal used in making stainless...Ch. 16 - Red phosphorus is formed by heating white...Ch. 16 - Organ pipes in unheated churches develop tin...Ch. 16 - Sulfur has about 20 different allotropes. The most...Ch. 16 - Pencil lead is almost pure graphite. Graphite is...Ch. 16 - Given the following data for sodium Na(s): S =51.2...Ch. 16 - Given the following data for bromine: Br2(l); S...Ch. 16 - Show by calculation, using Appendix 1, whether...Ch. 16 - Show by calculation whether the reaction HF(aq)...Ch. 16 - For the reaction...Ch. 16 - For the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2SO2(g)+O2(g)2SO3(g) (a)...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction AgCl(s)Ag+(aq)+Cl(aq) (a)...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction CO(g)+H2O(g)CO2(g)+H2(g) Use...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction NH4+(aq) H+(aq)+NH3(aq) Use ...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 25C:...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction N2O(g)+NO2(g)3NO(g)K=4.41019...Ch. 16 - For the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the decomposition of N2O4 at 100C....Ch. 16 - Use the values for G f in Appendix 1 to calculate...Ch. 16 - Given that H f for HF(aq) is -320.1 kJ/mol and S...Ch. 16 - At 25C, a 0.327 M solution of a weak acid HX has a...Ch. 16 - A 0.250 M solution of a weak base R2NH has a pH of...Ch. 16 - Given the following standard free energies at...Ch. 16 - Given the following standard free energies at 25°C...Ch. 16 - Natural gas, which is mostly methane, CH4, is a...Ch. 16 - Theoretically, one can obtain zinc from an ore...Ch. 16 - When glucose, C6H12O11, is metabolized to CO2 and...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reactions at 25°C:...Ch. 16 - At 1200 K, an equilibrium mixture of CO and CO2...Ch. 16 - A protein is said to be denatured when it loses...Ch. 16 - A student is asked to prepare a 0.030 M aqueous...Ch. 16 - Some bacteria use light energy to convert carbon...Ch. 16 - Calculate the first and second ionization...Ch. 16 - Carbon monoxide poisoning results when carbon...Ch. 16 - The formation constant for the following reaction...Ch. 16 - Determine whether each of the following statements...Ch. 16 - Which of the following quantities can be taken to...Ch. 16 - Fill in the blanks: (a) H° and G° become equal at...Ch. 16 - Fill in the blanks: (a) At equilibrium, G is. (b)...Ch. 16 - In your own words, explain why (a) S° is negative...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction with its...Ch. 16 - Consider the graph below: (a) Describe the...Ch. 16 - The relationship between G° and T is linear. Draw...Ch. 16 - Answer the questions low by writing LT (for is...Ch. 16 - Consider the following data about ethy alcohol:...Ch. 16 - Hf for iodine gas is 62.4 kJ/mol, and S° is 260.7...Ch. 16 - The heat of fusion of ice is 333 J/g. For the...Ch. 16 - The overall reaction that occurs when sugar is...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen has been suggested as the fuel of the...Ch. 16 - When a copper wire is exposed to air at room...Ch. 16 - Kafor acetic acid (HC2H3O2) at 25°C is 1.754105 ....Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2HI(g)H2(g)+I2(g)At 500C a...Ch. 16 - Consider the formation of ammonia from its...Ch. 16 - Consider the formation of HI(g) from H2(g) and...

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