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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

You have three solutions labeled A, B, and C. You know only that each contains a different cation—Na+, NH4+, or H3O+. Each has an anion that does not contribute to the solution pH (e.g., Cl). You also have two other solutions, Y and Z, each containing a different anion, Cl or OH, with a cation that does not influence solution pH (e.g., K+). If equal amounts of B and Y are mixed, the result is an acidic solution. Mixing A and Z gives a neutral solution, whereas B and Z give a basic solution. Identify the five unknown solutions. (Adapted from D. H. Barouch: Voyages in Conceptual Chemistry, Boston, Jones and Bartlett, 1997.)

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Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Among three solutions A, B, and C each contain a different cation and the other two solutions Y and Z each containing a different anion. Five unknown solutions are to be stated.

Concept introduction:

Metal cations have two characteristics that allow them to act as a Lewis acid:

(a) Their positive charge that attracts electrons.

(b) They have at least one empty orbital that can accommodate an electron pair.

Anions can act as a Lewis base because they have a lone pair of the electron that can donate to an empty orbital of Lewis acid and anion can also act as a bronsted base because they can accept a proton from an acid to form the conjugate acid of the ion.

A conjugate acid-base pair contains two compounds that differ only by a hydrogen ion and a charge of +1.

The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base and vice-verca.

Explanation

Three solutions A, B, and C each containing different cations, Na+,NH4+ and H+ are

Lewis acid and two another solution Y and Z each containing different anions Cl,OH are Lewis bases.

A neutralization reaction can be defined as the reaction of an acid and base to produce salt and water. When a solution is neutralized it means that salt are formed from an equal amount of an acid and base. Depending on the acid-base properties of its ions, a salt can dissolve in water to produce a neutral solution, a basic solution, or an acidic solution.

There are three types of neutralization reaction as follows:

    Strong Acid+StrongBaseSALT+H2O     pH=7(neutral)Strong Acid+WeakBaseSALT+H2O       pH<7(acidic)Weak Acid+StrongBaseSALT+H2O       pH>7(basic)

The Na+ cation is a Lewis acid, so it can combine with both Cl and OH ion. When a salt NaCl dissolves in water, it gives HCl and NaOH the reaction can be written as:

    Na+(aq)+Cl(aq)+H2O(l)Na+(aq)+Cl(

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Chapter 16 Solutions

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Sect-16.10 P-1.2ACPSect-16.10 P-1.3ACPSect-16.10 P-2.1ACPSect-16.10 P-2.2ACPSect-16.10 P-2.3ACPSect-16.10 P-2.4ACPSect-16.10 P-2.5ACPCh-16 P-1PSCh-16 P-2PSCh-16 P-3PSCh-16 P-4PSCh-16 P-5PSCh-16 P-6PSCh-16 P-7PSCh-16 P-8PSCh-16 P-9PSCh-16 P-10PSCh-16 P-11PSCh-16 P-12PSCh-16 P-13PSCh-16 P-14PSCh-16 P-15PSCh-16 P-16PSCh-16 P-17PSCh-16 P-18PSCh-16 P-19PSCh-16 P-20PSCh-16 P-21PSCh-16 P-22PSCh-16 P-23PSCh-16 P-24PSCh-16 P-25PSCh-16 P-26PSCh-16 P-27PSCh-16 P-28PSCh-16 P-29PSCh-16 P-30PSCh-16 P-31PSCh-16 P-32PSCh-16 P-33PSCh-16 P-34PSCh-16 P-35PSCh-16 P-36PSCh-16 P-37PSCh-16 P-38PSCh-16 P-39PSCh-16 P-40PSCh-16 P-41PSCh-16 P-42PSCh-16 P-43PSCh-16 P-44PSCh-16 P-45PSCh-16 P-46PSCh-16 P-47PSCh-16 P-48PSCh-16 P-49PSCh-16 P-50PSCh-16 P-51PSCh-16 P-52PSCh-16 P-53PSCh-16 P-54PSCh-16 P-55PSCh-16 P-56PSCh-16 P-57PSCh-16 P-58PSCh-16 P-59PSCh-16 P-60PSCh-16 P-61PSCh-16 P-62PSCh-16 P-63PSCh-16 P-64PSCh-16 P-65PSCh-16 P-66PSCh-16 P-67PSCh-16 P-68PSCh-16 P-69PSCh-16 P-70PSCh-16 P-71PSCh-16 P-72PSCh-16 P-73PSCh-16 P-74PSCh-16 P-75PSCh-16 P-76PSCh-16 P-77PSCh-16 P-78PSCh-16 P-79PSCh-16 P-80PSCh-16 P-81PSCh-16 P-82PSCh-16 P-83PSCh-16 P-84PSCh-16 P-85GQCh-16 P-86GQCh-16 P-87GQCh-16 P-88GQCh-16 P-89GQCh-16 P-90GQCh-16 P-91GQCh-16 P-92GQCh-16 P-93GQCh-16 P-94GQCh-16 P-95GQCh-16 P-96GQCh-16 P-97GQCh-16 P-98GQCh-16 P-99GQCh-16 P-100GQCh-16 P-101GQCh-16 P-102GQCh-16 P-103GQCh-16 P-104GQCh-16 P-105GQCh-16 P-106GQCh-16 P-107GQCh-16 P-108GQCh-16 P-109GQCh-16 P-110GQCh-16 P-111ILCh-16 P-112ILCh-16 P-113ILCh-16 P-114ILCh-16 P-115ILCh-16 P-116ILCh-16 P-117ILCh-16 P-118ILCh-16 P-119SCQCh-16 P-120SCQCh-16 P-121SCQCh-16 P-122SCQCh-16 P-123SCQCh-16 P-124SCQCh-16 P-125SCQCh-16 P-126SCQCh-16 P-127SCQCh-16 P-128SCQCh-16 P-129SCQ

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