   # Sodium chloride is added to water (at 25°C) until it is saturated. Calculate the Cl − concentration in such a solution. Species ∆G°(kJ/mol) NaCl( s ) − 384 Na + ( aq ) − 262 Cl − ( aq ) − 131 ### Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 16, Problem 115CP
Textbook Problem
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## Sodium chloride is added to water (at 25°C) until it is saturated. Calculate the Cl− concentration in such a solution. Species ∆G°(kJ/mol) NaCl(s) − 384 Na+(aq) − 262 Cl−(aq) − 131

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Sodium chloride is added to water (at25οC) until it is saturated. The concentration of Cl in such a solution is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: Thermodynamics is associated with heat, temperature and its relation with energy and work. It helps us to predict whether a process will take place or not. The terms associated with thermodynamics are system, surrounding, entropy, spontaneity and many more.

### Explanation of Solution

Given

The ΔGο for NaCl is -384kJ/mol .

The ΔGο for Na+ is -262kJ/mol

The ΔGο for Cl is -131kJ/mol

The given reaction is,

NaCl(s)Na+(aq)+Cl(aq) .

The solubility of Na+ and Cl- is assumed to be S . Therefore, the solubility product (Ksp) expression for the above reaction is,

Ksp=S×S=S2 (1)

The standard free change ( ΔGο ) for the reaction is calculated by the formula,

ΔGο=(Number of moles of products×ΔGοProducts Number of moles of reactants×ΔGοReactants)

ΔGο=((Number of moles of Na+(aq)×ΔGοNa+(aq)+Number of moles of Cl(aq)×ΔGοCl(aq)) (Number of moles of NaCl(s)×ΔGοNaCl(s)))

Where,

• ΔGοNa+(aq) is the standard energy change for Na+ .
• ΔGοCl(aq) is the standard energy change for Cl .
• ΔGοNaCl(s) is the standard energy change for NaCl .

The number of moles of Na+(aq) is 1

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