   Chapter 16, Problem 121MP

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Aluminium ions react with the hydroxide ion to form the precipitate Al(OH) 3 (s) , but can also react to form the soluble complex ion Al(OH) 4 − . In terms of solubility, Al(OH) 3 (s) will be more soluble in very acidic solutions as well as more soluble in very basic solutions. a. Write equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH) 3 (s) in very acidic solutions and in very basic solutions. b. Let’s study the pH dependence of the solubility of Al(OH) 3 (s) in more detail.  Show that the solubility of Al(OH) 3 , as a function of [H + ] , obeys the equation   S = [ H + ] 3 K s p / K w 3 + K K w / [ H + ]   Where S =  solubility = [Al 3 + ] + [ Al(OH) 4 - ] and K is the equilibrium constant for  Al(OH) 3 (s) + OH − ( a q ) ⇌  Al(OH) 4 − ( a q )    c. The value of K is 40.0 and K s p for Al(OH) 3 is 2 × 10 − 32 .  Plot the solubility of Al(OH) 3 in the pH range 4 − 12 .

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH)3 in very acidic and very basic solutions are to be stated. The solubility of Al(OH)3 as a function of [H+], obeys the given equation is to be shown. The solubility of Al(OH)3 in the pH range 412 is to be plotted.

Concept introduction: The constant Ksp is known as solubility product or solubility product constant. It is equilibrium constant and for a given solid, it has a particular value at a given temperature. However, the solubility is equilibrium position. The solubility product expression comprises of product of the ion concentrations.

Explanation

Explanation

To determine: The equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH)3 in very acidic and very basic solutions.

The equations are given below.

Aluminum ions react with the hydroxide ion to form precipitate Al(OH)3, but it also react to form the soluble complex ion Al(OH)4. The precipitate is more soluble in very acidic and very basic solutions.

The equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH)3 in very acidic solution is,

Al(OH)3(s)

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH)3 in very acidic and very basic solutions are to be stated. The solubility of Al(OH)3 as a function of [H+], obeys the given equation is to be shown. The solubility of Al(OH)3 in the pH range 412 is to be plotted.

Concept introduction: The constant Ksp is known as solubility product or solubility product constant. It is equilibrium constant and for a given solid, it has a particular value at a given temperature. However, the solubility is equilibrium position. The solubility product expression comprises of product of the ion concentrations.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH)3 in very acidic and very basic solutions are to be stated. The solubility of Al(OH)3 as a function of [H+], obeys the given equation is to be shown. The solubility of Al(OH)3 in the pH range 412 is to be plotted.

Concept introduction: The constant Ksp is known as solubility product or solubility product constant. It is equilibrium constant and for a given solid, it has a particular value at a given temperature. However, the solubility is equilibrium position. The solubility product expression comprises of product of the ion concentrations.

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