menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

When the environment is contaminated by a toxic or potentially toxic substance (for example, from a chemical spill or the use of insecticides). the substance tends to disperse. How is this consistent with the second law of thermodynamics? In terms of the second Jaw. which requires the least work: cleaning the environment after it has been contaminated or trying to prevent the contamination before it occurs? Explain.

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 16, Problem 12Q
Textbook Problem
5 views

When the environment is contaminated by a toxic or potentially toxic substance (for example, from a chemical spill or the use of insecticides). the substance tends to disperse. How is this consistent with the second law of thermodynamics? In terms of the second Jaw. which requires the least work: cleaning the environment after it has been contaminated or trying to prevent the contamination before it occurs? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The contamination of the environment by a toxic or a potentially toxic substance corresponds to the dispersion of the substance. This is to be validated on basis of the second law of thermodynamics. The process that requires the least work, out of the given two processes, is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The second law of thermodynamics corresponds to the fact that the entropy of a system cannot decrease with time, in case of an isolated system. In case of the spontaneous processes, the total entropy value keeps increasing.

Explanation of Solution

The second law of thermodynamics corresponds to the fact that the entropy of a system cannot decrease with time. It keeps increasing. The contamination of the environment by a toxic substance can be regarded as a system.

The entropy of a system keeps increasing; hence, the dispersion of the substa...

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 16 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 16 - For the process A(l) A(g), which direction is...Ch. 16 - For a liquid, which would you expect to be larger,...Ch. 16 - Gas A2 reacts with gas B2 to form gas AB at a...Ch. 16 - What types of experiments can be carried out to...Ch. 16 - A friend tells you, Free energy G and pressure P...Ch. 16 - You remember that G is related to RT ln(K) but...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Is Ssurr favorable or unfavorable for exothermic...Ch. 16 - At 1 atm, liquid water is heated above 100C. For...Ch. 16 - When (if ever) are high temperatures unfavorable...Ch. 16 - The synthesis of glucose directly from CO2 and H2O...Ch. 16 - When the environment is contaminated by a toxic or...Ch. 16 - Entropy has been described as times arrow....Ch. 16 - Human DNA contains almost twice as much...Ch. 16 - A mixture of hydrogen gas and chlorine gas remains...Ch. 16 - Consider the following potential energy plots: a....Ch. 16 - Ssurr is sometimes called the energy disorder...Ch. 16 - Given the following illustration, what can be said...Ch. 16 - The third law of thermodynamics states that the...Ch. 16 - The deciding factor on why HF is a weak acid and...Ch. 16 - List three different ways to calculate the...Ch. 16 - What information can be determined from G for a...Ch. 16 - Monochloroethane (C2H5Cl) can be produced by the...Ch. 16 - At 1500 K, the process I2(g)2I(g)10atm10atm is not...Ch. 16 - Which of the following processes are spontaneous?...Ch. 16 - Which of the following processes are spontaneous?...Ch. 16 - Table 16-1 shows the possible arrangements of four...Ch. 16 - Consider the following illustration of six...Ch. 16 - Consider the following energy levels, each capable...Ch. 16 - Redo Exercise 29 with two particles A and B, which...Ch. 16 - Choose the substance with the larger positional...Ch. 16 - Which of the following involve an increase in the...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of Ssurr for the following...Ch. 16 - Calculate Ssurr for the following reactions at 25C...Ch. 16 - Given the values of H and S, which of the...Ch. 16 - At what temperatures will the following processes...Ch. 16 - Ethanethiol (C2H5SH; also called ethyl mercaptan)...Ch. 16 - For mercury, the enthalpy of vaporization is 58.51...Ch. 16 - For ammonia (NH3), the enthalpy of fusion is 5.65...Ch. 16 - The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.7...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - For each of the following pairs of substances,...Ch. 16 - For each of the following pairs, which substance...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S and then calculate S for...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S and then calculate S for...Ch. 16 - For the reaction C2H2(g)+4F2(g)2CF4(g)+H2(g) S is...Ch. 16 - For the reaction CS2(g)+3O2(g)CO2(g)+2SO2(g) S is...Ch. 16 - It is quite common for a solid to change from one...Ch. 16 - Two crystalline forms of white phosphorus are...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2O(g)O2(g) a. Predict the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen cyanide is produced industrially by the...Ch. 16 - From data in Appendix 4, calculate H, S, and G for...Ch. 16 - The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the...Ch. 16 - For the reaction at 298 K, 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) the...Ch. 16 - At 100C and 1.00 atm, H = 40.6 kJ/mol for the...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - For the reaction SF4(g)+F2(g)SF6(g) the value of G...Ch. 16 - The value of G for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2POCl3(g)2PCl3(g)+O2(g) a....Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate H, S and G...Ch. 16 - Consider two reactions for the production of...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) For each of...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - One of the reactions that destroys ozone in the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen sulfide can be removed from natural gas...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 25.0C:...Ch. 16 - The standard free energies of formation and the...Ch. 16 - Calculate G forH2O(g)+12O2(g)H2O2(g) at 600. K,...Ch. 16 - The Ostwald process for the commercial production...Ch. 16 - Cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine...Ch. 16 - One reaction that occurs in human metabolism is...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 800. K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 298 K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the relationship In(K)=HRT+SR The...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant K for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Using Appendix 4 and the following data, determine...Ch. 16 - Some water is placed in a coffee-cup calorimeter....Ch. 16 - Consider the following system at equilibrium at...Ch. 16 - Calculate the entropy change for the vaporization...Ch. 16 - As O2(l) is cooled at 1 atm, it freezes at 54.5 K...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - Using the following data, calculate the value of...Ch. 16 - Many biochemical reactions that occur in cells...Ch. 16 - Carbon monoxide is toxic because it bonds much...Ch. 16 - In the text, the equation G=G+RTIn(Q) was derived...Ch. 16 - Consider the reactions...Ch. 16 - Use the equation in Exercise 79 to determine H and...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the following diagram of free energy (G)...Ch. 16 - Which of the following reactions (or processes)...Ch. 16 - For rubidium Hvapo=69.0KJ/mol at 686C, its boiling...Ch. 16 - Given the thermodynamic data below, calculate S...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: H2S(g)+SO2(g)3S(g)+2H2O(l)...Ch. 16 - The following reaction occurs in pure water:...Ch. 16 - Consider the dissociation of a weak acid HA (Ka =...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: PCl3(g)+Cl2(g)PCl5(g) At...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for a certain reaction...Ch. 16 - For the following reactions at constant pressure,...Ch. 16 - The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O(l) at...Ch. 16 - Consider two perfectly insulated vessels. Vessel 1...Ch. 16 - Liquid water at 25C is introduced into an...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate H, G, and K...Ch. 16 - Entropy can be calculated by a relationship...Ch. 16 - a. Using the free energy profile for a simple...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction H2(g)+Br2(g)2HBr(g) where H...Ch. 16 - Consider the system A(g)B(g) at25C. a. Assuming...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for a certain reaction...Ch. 16 - If wet silver carbonate is dried in a stream of...Ch. 16 - Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and benzene (C6H6)...Ch. 16 - Sodium chloride is added to water (at 25C) until...Ch. 16 - You have a 1.00-L sample of hot water (90.0C)...Ch. 16 - Consider a weak acid, HX. If a 0.10-M solution of...Ch. 16 - Some nonelectrolyte solute (molar mass = 142...Ch. 16 - For the equilibrium A(g)+2B(g)C(g) the initial...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0. 125-M solution of the weak...Ch. 16 - Consider a sample containing 5.00 moles of a...Ch. 16 - Impure nickel, refined by smelting sulfide ores in...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Blood LDL values of people eating typical, meat-rich Western diets are generally higher than LDL values of vege...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What does density describe?

An Introduction to Physical Science

What is a life cycle?

Biology: The Dynamic Science (MindTap Course List)

A teapot with a surface area of 700 cm2 is to be plated with silver. It is attached to the negative electrode o...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Pick the amino acids from Table 22-1 that have an aromatic R group.

Introductory Chemistry: An Active Learning Approach