   Chapter 16, Problem 16.150QP General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343

Solutions

Chapter
Section General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343
Textbook Problem

A buffer solution is prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0.10 M NaNO2 and 0.10 M HNO2 solutions. a Calculate the pH of this solution. b How would the buffer capacity of 500 mL of this buffer solution compare to the buffer capacity of 1000 mL of the solution? Explain your reasoning. c If you had 2.0 L of this buffer solution, what is the minimum volume of 0.10 M Ca(OH)2 required to exceed the buffer capacity?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The pH of the given buffer solution has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation:

The pH can be calculated using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation as follows,

pH = pKa + log[conjugate base][weak acid]pH = pKa + log[A-][HA]

To Calculate: The pH of the given buffer solution

Explanation

Given data:

0.10 M NaNO2 and 0.10 M HNO2 solutions of equal volumes are mixed and a buffer a solution is prepared.

Calculation of pH:

Upon mixing of the given two solutions, dilution takes place.

Hence, the given concentrations of the two solutions are diluted by 2 since equal volumes

of NaNO2 solution and HNO2 solution are mixed.

The concentration of nitrate ion, NO2 ion and HNO2 after mixing are:

[NO2-] =0.10 M2 =0.050 M[HNO2]=0.10 M2 =0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The buffer capacity of 500 mL of the given buffer solution has to be compared with the buffer capacity of 1000 mL of the solution.

Concept Introduction:

The term capacity of buffer:

The capacity of a buffer given as, the maximum quantity of acid or base with which the buffer can react prior to exhibit a significant change in pH.

Buffer with low and high capacity:

The ratio of quantity of acid to quantity of conjugate base is vital to describe the buffer with low capacity and high capacity.

To Compare: The buffer capacity of 500 mL of the given buffer with the buffer capacity of 1000 mL

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The minimum volume of 0.10 M Ca(OH)2 required to exceed the buffer capacity of 2.0 L of the buffer solution has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

The term capacity of buffer:

The capacity of a buffer given as, the maximum quantity of acid or base with which the buffer can react prior to exhibit a significant change in pH.

Buffer with low and high capacity:

The ratio of quantity of acid to quantity of conjugate base is vital to describe the buffer with low capacity and high capacity.

To Calculate: The minimum volume of 0.10 M Ca(OH)2 required to exceed the buffer capacity of 2.0 L of the buffer solution

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