Interpretation: For a species to act as Bronsted base, an atom in the species must possess a lone pair of electrons has to be explained.
Concept Introduction: Bronsted's definition is based on the chemical reaction that occurs when both acids and bases are added with each other. In Bronsted's theory acid donates proton, while base accepts proton from acid resulting in the formation of water.
Example: Consider the following reaction.
Hydrogen chloride donates a proton, and hence it is a Bronsted acid. Ammonia accepts a proton, and hence it is a Bronsted base.
To Explain: why an atom in species must possess lone pair of electrons, for the species to act as Bronsted base.
The atom in a species must possess lone pair of electrons to act as Bronsted base because Bronsted base is acceptor.
To explain Bronsted base
Bronsted base is the one which can accept proton to form a conjugated acid.
To explain why lone pair is must
If a lone pair of electron is present, the species can accept proton. This is because the Bronsted base accepts a proton to form conjugate acid. Therefore lone pair of electron is must for a species to act as Bronsted base.
The necessity of presence of lone pair of electrons in an atom for a species to act as Bronsted base was explained.
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