BuyFind

Fundamentals of Physical Geography

2nd Edition
James Petersen
Publisher: CENGAGE L
ISBN: 9781133606536
BuyFind

Fundamentals of Physical Geography

2nd Edition
James Petersen
Publisher: CENGAGE L
ISBN: 9781133606536

Solutions

Chapter 16, Problem 1FQ
Textbook Problem

Chapter 16, Problem 1FQ, FIGURE 16.1 The transformation of frozen water from snow to glacial ice. How does firn differ from

FIGURE 16.1 The transformation of frozen water from snow to glacial ice.

How does firn differ from snow?

Expert Solution
To determine

The way in which firn differ from snow.

Answer to Problem 1FQ

The firn and snow differ on the basis of density. Snow is soft, hexagonal ice crystal with low density and firn is packed ice crystals, denser than snow.  Snow has a significant amount of air in it. Firn is formed by closely packing of snow granules and then, coalescence of these granules as a result of compression until it attains approximately half the density of water.

Explanation of Solution

“Glaciers form when snow accumulates over an extensive period of time. The transformation of snow to ice involves a complex sequence of progressive burial, compression, partial melting and re-freezing. The transformation takes place progressively, as younger snow buries older snow.”

The process begins as snow starts falling as hexagonal ice crystals that form snowflakes containing beautiful intricate forms. Snow contains up to 90% air. The density (mass per unit volume) of the snowflake is low of about 0.1 grams per cubic centimeter (0.06 oz/in.3).

With progressive burial, compression, partial melting, and re-freezing take place, the snow first turns to firn and then, to ice (solid mass of interlocking ice crystals). Firn is the denser crystalline material formed by the compaction of granular snow due to the weight of the overlying material from the progressive burial of snow. Firn only contains about 25% air. The deeply buried frozen material becomes glacial ice when it achieves a density of 0.9 grams per cubic centimeter (0.52 oz/in.3).

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Chapter 16 Solutions

Fundamentals of Physical Geography
Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.20 Glacial till, here deposited by an...Ch. 16 - (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 16.21 (a) Prominent lateral...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.22 Ice sheets and ice caps flow outward...Ch. 16 - What portion of an iceberg is hidden below the...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.26 Glacial ice coverage in the Northern...Ch. 16 - (a) (b) FIGURE 16.27 (a) Features associated with...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.28 Hilly topography of an end moraine...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.29 Glacial deposits in the Great Lakes...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.32 An esker near Albert Lea, Minnesota....Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.33 A glacial erratic in Yellowstone...Ch. 16 - FIGURE 16.34 The New York Finger Lakes occupy...Ch. 16 - What is the approximate amount of local relief...Ch. 16 - From your examination of the topographic map and...Ch. 16 - Locate Grinnell, Swiftcurrent, and Sperry...Ch. 16 - What evidence indicates that the glaciers were...Ch. 16 - Note that most of the existing glaciers are...Ch. 16 - What types of glacial landform are the following...Ch. 16 - Along the high ridges runs a dashed line labeled...Ch. 16 - If you were to hike southeast from Auto Camp on...Ch. 16 - How does glacial ice differ from snow?Ch. 16 - What are the three main types of alpine glacier...Ch. 16 - How do glaciers move?Ch. 16 - Diagram and label the characteristic parts of an...Ch. 16 - What are accumulation and ablation, and how are...Ch. 16 - How do alpine glaciers differ from streams in...Ch. 16 - What are some major similarities and some major...Ch. 16 - Where on Earth are the two major existing ice...Ch. 16 - What are some types of geomorphic evidence in the...Ch. 16 - What landscape features would indicate that a...Ch. 16 - The table shows the position (elevation) of the...Ch. 16 - Using Google Earth, identify the landforms at the...

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