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If you calculate a value for ∆ G ° for a reaction using the values of Δ G f ∘ in Appendix 4 and get a negative number, is it correct to say that the reaction is always spontaneous? Why or why not? Free energy changes also depend on concentration. For gases, how is G related to the pressure of the gas? What are standard pressures for gases and standard concentrations for solutes? How do you calculate ∆ G for a reaction at nonstandard conditions? The equation to determine ∆G at nonstandard conditions has Q in it: What is Q ? A reaction is spontaneous as long as ∆ G is negative; that is, reactions always proceed as long as the products have a lower free energy than the reactants. What is so special about equilibrium? Why don’t reactions move away from equilibrium?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 16, Problem 7RQ
Textbook Problem
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If you calculate a value for ∆G° for a reaction using the values of Δ G f in Appendix 4 and get a negative number, is it correct to say that the reaction is always spontaneous? Why or why not? Free energy changes also depend on concentration. For gases, how is G related to the pressure of the gas? What are standard pressures for gases and standard concentrations for solutes? How do you calculate ∆G for a reaction at nonstandard conditions? The equation to determine ∆G at nonstandard conditions has Q in it: What is Q? A reaction is spontaneous as long as ∆G is negative; that is, reactions always proceed as long as the products have a lower free energy than the reactants. What is so special about equilibrium? Why don’t reactions move away from equilibrium?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon Gibbs free energy is to be stated.

Concept introduction: Thermodynamics is associated with heat, temperature and its relation with energy and work. It helps us to predict whether a process will take place or not. But it gives no information about the time required for the process. The terms associated with thermodynamics are system, surrounding, entropy, spontaneity and many more.

To determine: The answers of various questions based upon Gibbs free energy.

Explanation of Solution

Free energy changes depends upon pressure of the gas.

The relationship between free energy changes and pressure of the gas is,

G=G0+RTln(P)

Where,

  • G0 is the standard free energy change.
  • G is the free energy change of the gas.
  • P is the pressure of the gas.
  • T is the temperature.

The standard pressure for gases is 1atm .

The standard concentration for solutes is 1mole .

The ΔG for a reaction at nonstandard condition is calculated by the equation given below

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Chapter 16 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 16 - For the process A(l) A(g), which direction is...Ch. 16 - For a liquid, which would you expect to be larger,...Ch. 16 - Gas A2 reacts with gas B2 to form gas AB at a...Ch. 16 - What types of experiments can be carried out to...Ch. 16 - A friend tells you, Free energy G and pressure P...Ch. 16 - You remember that G is related to RT ln(K) but...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Is Ssurr favorable or unfavorable for exothermic...Ch. 16 - At 1 atm, liquid water is heated above 100C. For...Ch. 16 - When (if ever) are high temperatures unfavorable...Ch. 16 - The synthesis of glucose directly from CO2 and H2O...Ch. 16 - When the environment is contaminated by a toxic or...Ch. 16 - Entropy has been described as times arrow....Ch. 16 - Human DNA contains almost twice as much...Ch. 16 - A mixture of hydrogen gas and chlorine gas remains...Ch. 16 - Consider the following potential energy plots: a....Ch. 16 - Ssurr is sometimes called the energy disorder...Ch. 16 - Given the following illustration, what can be said...Ch. 16 - The third law of thermodynamics states that the...Ch. 16 - The deciding factor on why HF is a weak acid and...Ch. 16 - List three different ways to calculate the...Ch. 16 - What information can be determined from G for a...Ch. 16 - Monochloroethane (C2H5Cl) can be produced by the...Ch. 16 - At 1500 K, the process I2(g)2I(g)10atm10atm is not...Ch. 16 - Which of the following processes are spontaneous?...Ch. 16 - Which of the following processes are spontaneous?...Ch. 16 - Table 16-1 shows the possible arrangements of four...Ch. 16 - Consider the following illustration of six...Ch. 16 - Consider the following energy levels, each capable...Ch. 16 - Redo Exercise 29 with two particles A and B, which...Ch. 16 - Choose the substance with the larger positional...Ch. 16 - Which of the following involve an increase in the...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of Ssurr for the following...Ch. 16 - Calculate Ssurr for the following reactions at 25C...Ch. 16 - Given the values of H and S, which of the...Ch. 16 - At what temperatures will the following processes...Ch. 16 - Ethanethiol (C2H5SH; also called ethyl mercaptan)...Ch. 16 - For mercury, the enthalpy of vaporization is 58.51...Ch. 16 - For ammonia (NH3), the enthalpy of fusion is 5.65...Ch. 16 - The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.7...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S for each of the following...Ch. 16 - For each of the following pairs of substances,...Ch. 16 - For each of the following pairs, which substance...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S and then calculate S for...Ch. 16 - Predict the sign of S and then calculate S for...Ch. 16 - For the reaction C2H2(g)+4F2(g)2CF4(g)+H2(g) S is...Ch. 16 - For the reaction CS2(g)+3O2(g)CO2(g)+2SO2(g) S is...Ch. 16 - It is quite common for a solid to change from one...Ch. 16 - Two crystalline forms of white phosphorus are...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2O(g)O2(g) a. Predict the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen cyanide is produced industrially by the...Ch. 16 - From data in Appendix 4, calculate H, S, and G for...Ch. 16 - The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the...Ch. 16 - For the reaction at 298 K, 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) the...Ch. 16 - At 100C and 1.00 atm, H = 40.6 kJ/mol for the...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - Given the following data:...Ch. 16 - For the reaction SF4(g)+F2(g)SF6(g) the value of G...Ch. 16 - The value of G for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2POCl3(g)2PCl3(g)+O2(g) a....Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate H, S and G...Ch. 16 - Consider two reactions for the production of...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Using data from Appendix 4, calculate G for the...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction 2NO2(g)N2O4(g) For each of...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - One of the reactions that destroys ozone in the...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen sulfide can be removed from natural gas...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 25.0C:...Ch. 16 - The standard free energies of formation and the...Ch. 16 - Calculate G forH2O(g)+12O2(g)H2O2(g) at 600. K,...Ch. 16 - The Ostwald process for the commercial production...Ch. 16 - Cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine...Ch. 16 - One reaction that occurs in human metabolism is...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 800. K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction at 298 K:...Ch. 16 - Consider the relationship In(K)=HRT+SR The...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant K for the reaction...Ch. 16 - Using Appendix 4 and the following data, determine...Ch. 16 - Some water is placed in a coffee-cup calorimeter....Ch. 16 - Consider the following system at equilibrium at...Ch. 16 - Calculate the entropy change for the vaporization...Ch. 16 - As O2(l) is cooled at 1 atm, it freezes at 54.5 K...Ch. 16 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 16 - Using the following data, calculate the value of...Ch. 16 - Many biochemical reactions that occur in cells...Ch. 16 - Carbon monoxide is toxic because it bonds much...Ch. 16 - In the text, the equation G=G+RTIn(Q) was derived...Ch. 16 - Consider the reactions...Ch. 16 - Use the equation in Exercise 79 to determine H and...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction...Ch. 16 - Consider the following diagram of free energy (G)...Ch. 16 - Which of the following reactions (or processes)...Ch. 16 - For rubidium Hvapo=69.0KJ/mol at 686C, its boiling...Ch. 16 - Given the thermodynamic data below, calculate S...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: H2S(g)+SO2(g)3S(g)+2H2O(l)...Ch. 16 - The following reaction occurs in pure water:...Ch. 16 - Consider the dissociation of a weak acid HA (Ka =...Ch. 16 - Consider the reaction: PCl3(g)+Cl2(g)PCl5(g) At...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for a certain reaction...Ch. 16 - For the following reactions at constant pressure,...Ch. 16 - The standard enthalpy of formation of H2O(l) at...Ch. 16 - Consider two perfectly insulated vessels. 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