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Composition diagrams, commonly known as “alpha plots,” are often used to visualize the species in a solution of an acid or base as the pH is varied. The diagram for 0.100 M acetic acid is shown here. The plot shows how the fraction [alpha ( α )] of acetic acid in solution, α = [ C H 3 C O 2 H ] [ C H 3 C O 2 H ] + [ C H 3 C O 2 − ] changes as the pH increases (blue curve). (The red curve shows how the fraction of acetate ion, CH 3 CO 2 − , changes as the pH increases.) Alpha plots are another way of viewing the relative concentrations of acetic acid and acetate ion as a strong base is added to a solution of acetic acid in the course of a titration. (a) Explain why the fraction of acetic acid declines and that of acetate ion increases as the pH increases. (b) Which species predominates at a pH of 4 , acetic acid or acetate ion? What is the situation at a pH of 6? (c) Consider the point where the two lines cross. The fraction of acetic acid in the solution is 0.5, and so is that of acetate ion. That is, the solution is half acid and half conjugate base; their concentrations are equal. At this point, the graph shows the pH is 4.74. Explain why the pH at this point is 4 74.

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 17, Problem 117SCQ
Textbook Problem
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Composition diagrams, commonly known as “alpha plots,” are often used to visualize the species in a solution of an acid or base as the pH is varied. The diagram for 0.100 M acetic acid is shown here.

Chapter 17, Problem 117SCQ, Composition diagrams, commonly known as alpha plots, are often used to visualize the species in a

The plot shows how the fraction [alpha (α)] of acetic acid in solution,

α = [ C H 3 C O 2 H ] [ C H 3 C O 2 H ] + [ C H 3 C O 2 ]

changes as the pH increases (blue curve). (The red curve shows how the fraction of acetate ion, CH3CO2, changes as the pH increases.) Alpha plots are another way of viewing the relative concentrations of acetic acid and acetate ion as a strong base is added to a solution of acetic acid in the course of a titration.

  1. (a) Explain why the fraction of acetic acid declines and that of acetate ion increases as the pH increases.
  2. (b) Which species predominates at a pH of 4, acetic acid or acetate ion? What is the situation at a pH of 6?
  3. (c) Consider the point where the two lines cross. The fraction of acetic acid in the solution is 0.5, and so is that of acetate ion. That is, the solution is half acid and half conjugate base; their concentrations are equal. At this point, the graph shows the pH is 4.74. Explain why the pH at this point is 4 74.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following by using the given  pH plot has to be determined.

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 17, Problem 117SCQ , additional homework tip  1

  1. (a) Explain why the fraction of acetic acid declines and that of acetic acid that of acetate ion increases as the pH increase.

Concept introduction:

The given plot shows how the fraction (α) of acetic acid solution.

α = [CH3CO2H][CH3CO2H]+[CH3CO2-]

It changes as the pH increases (blue curve).(The red curve shows how the fraction of acetate ion, CH3CO2- changes as the pH increase).Alpha plots are another way of viewing the relative concentrations of acetic acid and acetate ion as a strong base is added to a solution of acetic acid in the course of a titration.

Explanation of Solution

The value of pKa of acetic acid is 4.74. The pKa value of an acid becomes predominately deprotonated by increasing the pH of an acid.

This is because of the forward reaction of the dissociation equilibrium is more favoured. It leads to [H3O+

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following by using the given  pH plot has to be determined.

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 17, Problem 117SCQ , additional homework tip  2

Which species predominate at a pH of 4, acetic acid or acetate ion? What is the situation at a pH of 6?

Concept introduction:

The given plot shows how the fraction (α) of acetic acid solution.

α = [CH3CO2H][CH3CO2H]+[CH3CO2-]

It changes as the pH increases (blue curve).(The red curve shows how the fraction of acetate ion, CH3CO2- changes as the pH increase).Alpha plots are another way of viewing the relative concentrations of acetic acid and acetate ion as a strong base is added to a solution of acetic acid in the course of a titration.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The following by using the given  pH plot has to be determined.

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Chapter 17, Problem 117SCQ , additional homework tip  3

Consider the point where the two lines cross. The fraction of acetic acid in the solution is 0.5, and so is that of acetate ion. That is the solution i half acid and half conjugate base. Their concentrations are equal. At this point, the graph shows the pH is 4.74. Explain the pH at this point is 4.74.

Concept introduction:

The given plot shows how the fraction (α) of acetic acid solution.

α = [CH3CO2H][CH3CO2H]+[CH3CO2-]

It changes as the pH increases (blue curve).(The red curve shows how the fraction of acetate ion, CH3CO2- changes as the pH increase).Alpha plots are another way of viewing the relative concentrations of acetic acid and acetate ion as a strong base is added to a solution of acetic acid in the course of a titration.

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Chapter 17 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 17.3 - The titration of 0.100 M acetic acid with 0.100 M...Ch. 17.3 - Calculate the pH after 75.0 mL of 0.100 M HO has...Ch. 17.3 - 1. What is the pH after 25.0 ml of 0.100 M NaOH...Ch. 17.3 - 2. What is the pH at the equivalence point in the...Ch. 17.3 - Use Figure 17.10 to decide which indicator is best...Ch. 17.3 - Phosphate ions are abundant in cells, both as the...Ch. 17.3 - A typical total phosphate concentration in a cell,...Ch. 17.4 - The barium ion concentration, [Ba2+], in a...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of AgCN in moles per...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of Ca(OH)2 in moles per...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of BaSO4 (a) in pure...Ch. 17.4 - 12. Calculate the solubility of Zn(CN)2 at 25°C...Ch. 17.4 - What is the Ksp expression for silver carbonate?...Ch. 17.4 - 2. Using Ksp values, predict which salt in each...Ch. 17.4 - What is the solubility of PbSO4 in water at 25C?...Ch. 17.4 - 4. What is the solubility of PbSO4 in water at...Ch. 17.4 - Which compound should be more soluble in 0.1 MHCl...Ch. 17.5 - Solid Pbl2 (Ksp = 9.8 109) is placed in a beaker...Ch. 17.5 - What is the minimum concentration of I that can...Ch. 17.5 - You have 100.0 mL of 0.0010 M silver nitrate. Will...Ch. 17.5 - 1. Will SrSO4 precipitate from a solution...Ch. 17.6 - Silver nitrate (0.0050 mol) is added to 1.00 L of...Ch. 17.6 - 1. Iron(II) chloride (0.025 mol) is added to 1.00...Ch. 17.7 - Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 17.7 - 1. What is the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 17.7 - Approximately 0.10 g of sodium cyanide is fatal to...Ch. 17.7 - What is the minimum volume of 0.0071 M NaCN(aq)...Ch. 17.7 - Use the formation constant of [Au(CN)2] in...Ch. 17.7 - Silver undergoes similar reactions as those shown...Ch. 17.7 - Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 17 - Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease or...Ch. 17 - Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease, or...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of a solution that consists of 0.20...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of 0.15 M acetic acid to which 1.56...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the solution that results from...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the solution that results from...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the buffer solution that...Ch. 17 - Lactic acid (CH3CHOHCO2H) is found in sour milk,...Ch. 17 - What mass of sodium acetate, NaCH3CO2, must he...Ch. 17 - What mass of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, must be...Ch. 17 - Calculate the pH of a solution that has an acetic...Ch. 17 - Calculate the pH of a solution that has an...Ch. 17 - What must the ratio of acetic acid to acetate ion...Ch. 17 - What must the ratio of H2PO4 to HPO42 be to have a...Ch. 17 - A buffer is composed of formic acid and its...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution is composed of 1.360 g of KH2PO4...Ch. 17 - Which of the following combinations would be the...Ch. 17 - Which of the following combinations would be the...Ch. 17 - Describe how to prepare a buffer solution from...Ch. 17 - Describe how to prepare a buffer solution from NH3...Ch. 17 - Determine the volume (in mL) of 1.00 M NaOH that...Ch. 17 - Determine the volume (in mL) of 1.00 M HC1 that...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution was prepared by adding 4.95 g of...Ch. 17 - You dissolve 0.425 g of NaOH in 2.00 L of a buffer...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution is prepared by adding 0.125 mol...Ch. 17 - What is the pH change when 20.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH...Ch. 17 - Phenol, C6H5OH, is a weak organic acid. Suppose...Ch. 17 - Assume you dissolve 0.235 g of the weak acid...Ch. 17 - You require 36.78 mL of 0.0105 M HCl to reach the...Ch. 17 - A titration of 25.0 mL of a solution of the weak...Ch. 17 - Without doing detailed calculations, sketch the...Ch. 17 - Without doing detailed calculations, sketch the...Ch. 17 - You titrate 25.0 mL of 0.10 M NH3 with 0.10 M HCl....Ch. 17 - Using Figure 17.11, suggest an indicator to use in...Ch. 17 - Using Figure 17.11, suggest an indicator to use in...Ch. 17 - Name two insoluble salts of each of the following...Ch. 17 - Name two insoluble salts of each of the following...Ch. 17 - Using the solubility guidelines (Figure 3.10),...Ch. 17 - Predict whether each of the fallowing is insoluble...Ch. 17 - For each of the following insoluble salts, (1)...Ch. 17 - For each of the following insoluble salts, (1)...Ch. 17 - When 1.55 g of solid thallium(I) bromide is added...Ch. 17 - At 20 C, a saturated aqueous solution of silver...Ch. 17 - When 250 mg of SrF2, strontium fluoride, is added...Ch. 17 - Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, dissolves in water to...Ch. 17 - You add 0.979 g of Pb(OH)2 to 1.00 L of pure water...Ch. 17 - You place 1.234 g of solid Ca(OH)2 in 1.00 L of...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of silver iodide in pure...Ch. 17 - What is the molar concentration of Au+(aq) in a...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of calcium fluoride, CaF2,...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of lead(II) bromide (a) in...Ch. 17 - The Ksp value for radium sulfate, RaSO4, is 4.2 ...Ch. 17 - If 55 mg of lead(II) sulfate is placed in 250 mL...Ch. 17 - Use Ksp values to decide which compound in each of...Ch. 17 - Use Ksp values to decide which compound in each of...Ch. 17 - Calculate the molar solubility of silver...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility of silver bromide, AgBr,...Ch. 17 - Compare the solubility, in milligrams per...Ch. 17 - What is the solubility, in milligrams per...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility, in moles per liter, of...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility, in moles per liter, of...Ch. 17 - Which insoluble compound in each pair should be...Ch. 17 - Which compound in each pair is more soluble in...Ch. 17 - You have a solution that has a lead(II) ion...Ch. 17 - Sodium carbonate is added to a solution in which...Ch. 17 - If the concentration of Zn2+ in 10.0 mL of water...Ch. 17 - You have 95 mL of a solution that has a lead(II)...Ch. 17 - If the concentration of Mg2+ ion in seawater is...Ch. 17 - Will a precipitate of Mg(OH)2 form when 25.0 mL of...Ch. 17 - Zinc hydroxide is amphoteric (Section 16.10). Use...Ch. 17 - Solid silver iodide, AgI, can be dissolved by...Ch. 17 - What amount of ammonia (moles) must be added to...Ch. 17 - Can you dissolve 15.0 mg of AuCl in 100.0 mL of...Ch. 17 - What is the solubility of AgCl (a) in pure water...Ch. 17 - The chemistry of silver(I) cyanide: (a) Calculate...Ch. 17 - In each of the following cases, decide whether a...Ch. 17 - In each of the following cases, decide whether a...Ch. 17 - If you mix 48 mL of 0.0012 M BaCl2 with 24 mL of...Ch. 17 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and the...Ch. 17 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and the...Ch. 17 - For each of the following cases, decide whether...Ch. 17 - Rank the following compounds in order of...Ch. 17 - A sample of hard water contains about 2.0 103 M...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of a buffer solution prepared from...Ch. 17 - If you place 5.0 mg of SrSO4 in 1.0 L of pure...Ch. 17 - Describe the effect on the pH of the following...Ch. 17 - What volume of 0.120 M NaOH must be added to 100....Ch. 17 - A buffer solution is prepared by dissolving 1.50 g...Ch. 17 - What volume of 0.200 M HCl must be added to 500.0...Ch. 17 - What is the equilibrium constant for the following...Ch. 17 - Calculate the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 17 - Suppose you eat 28 grams of rhubarb leaves with an...Ch. 17 - The solubility product constant for calcium...Ch. 17 - In principle, the ions Ba2+ and Ca2+ can be...Ch. 17 - A solution contains 0.10 M iodide ion, I, and 0.10...Ch. 17 - A solution contains Ca2+ and Pb2+ ions, both at a...Ch. 17 - Buffer capacity is defined as the number of moles...Ch. 17 - The Ca2+ ion in hard water can be precipitated as...Ch. 17 - Some photographic film is coated with crystals of...Ch. 17 - Each pair of ions below is found together in...Ch. 17 - Each pair of ions below is found together in...Ch. 17 - The cations Ba2+ and Sr2+ can be precipitated as...Ch. 17 - You will often work with salts of Fe3+, Pb2+, and...Ch. 17 - Aniline hydrochloride, (C6H5NH3)Cl, is a weak...Ch. 17 - The weak base ethanolamine. HOCH2CH2NH2, can be...Ch. 17 - For the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.150 M...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution with it pH of 12.00 consists of...Ch. 17 - To have a buffer with a pH of 2.50, what volume of...Ch. 17 - What mass of Na3PO4 must be added to 80.0 mL of...Ch. 17 - You have a solution that contains AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2,...Ch. 17 - Once you have separated the three salts in Study...Ch. 17 - Suggest a method for separating a precipitate...Ch. 17 - Which of the following barium salts should...Ch. 17 - Explain why the solubility of Ag3PO4 can be...Ch. 17 - Two acids, each approximately 0.01 M in...Ch. 17 - Composition diagrams, commonly known as alpha...Ch. 17 - The composition diagram, or alpha plot, for the...Ch. 17 - The chemical name for aspirin is acetylsalicylic...Ch. 17 - Aluminum hydroxide reacts with phosphoric acid to...

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