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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 17, Problem 1PS
Textbook Problem
1211 views

Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease or stay the same when you

  1. (a) add solid ammonium chloride to a dilute aqueous solution of NH3?
  2. (b) add solid sodium acetate to a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid?
  3. (c) add solid NaCl to a dilute aqueous solution of NaOH?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

pH of the solution will increase, decrease or remains same has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

pH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the H+ ion in the solution. More the concentration of H+ ion in the solution, lower will be the pH value and more acidic will be the solution.

The expression for pH is given as,

  pH=log[H+]

 pOH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the OH ion in the solution. More the concentration of OH ion in the solution lower will be the value of pOH and more basic will be the solution.

The expression for pOH is given as,

  pOH=log[OH]

pH is calculated using following relation.

  pH+pOH=14

Common ion effect is defined as the phenomenon of the suppression of the dissociation of weak acid or base in presence of strong electrolyte having a common ion.  The common ion effect changes pH of the solution.

For example, a weak acid HA undergo partial dissociation in aqueous solution and an equilibrium is established between the dissociated and undissociated acid given as follows,

  HA(aq.)+ H2O(l)H3O+(aq.)+ A1(aq.)

Now if in the solution strong electrolyte having a common ion H3O+ or  A1 is added then according to the Le-Chatelier’s principle if the concentration of any of the product will increase then the reaction equilibrium will move to that side of the equilibrium that will decrease the effect of increased concentration of the product. Therefore the reaction will move in a backward direction forming more of un-dissociated acid and decrease the concentration of H3O+ in the solution, as a result,pH of the solution will increase.

Explanation of Solution

An aqueous solution of ammonia or ammonium hydroxide NH4OH is a weak base  and dissociates as follows,

  NH4OH(aq)NH4+(aq)+OH(aq)

If solid ammonium chloride NH4Cl is added to the solution then the concentration of NH4+ ions will increase as NH4Cl is a strong electrolyte and will dissociate in aqueous solution giving NH4+ and Cl ions.

  NH4Cl(s)NH4+(aq)+Cl(aq)

As a result due to the common ion effect, the reaction equilibrium will move towards left and [OH] will decrease. Suppression of dissociation of weak base NH4OH occur and pH of the solution will decrease.

Hence, pH value of the aqueous solution of ammonia will decrease upon addition of solid ammonium chloride.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

pH of the solution will increase, decrease or remains same has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

pH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the H+ ion in the solution. More the concentration of H+ ion in the solution, lower will be the pH value and more acidic will be the solution.

The expression for pH is given as,

  pH=log[H+]

 pOH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the OH ion in the solution. More the concentration of OH ion in the solution lower will be the value of pOH and more basic will be the solution.

The expression for pOH is given as,

  pOH=log[OH]

pH is calculated using following relation.

  pH+pOH=14

Common ion effect is defined as the phenomenon of the suppression of the dissociation of weak acid or base in presence of strong electrolyte having a common ion.  The common ion effect changes pH of the solution.

For example, a weak acid HA undergo partial dissociation in aqueous solution and an equilibrium is established between the dissociated and un-dissociated acid given as follows,

  HA(aq.)+ H2O(l)H3O+(aq.)+ A1(aq.)

Now if in the solution strong electrolyte having a common ion H3O+ or  A1 is added then according to the Le-Chatelier’s principle if the concentration of any of the product will increase then the reaction equilibrium will move to that side of the equilibrium that will decrease the effect of increased concentration of the product. Therefore the reaction will move in a backward direction forming more of un-dissociated acid and decrease the concentration of H3O+ in the solution, as a result, pH of the solution will increase.

Explanation of Solution

Acetic acid CH3COOH is a weak acid and it dissociates as follows in water,

  CH3COOH(aq)CH3COO(aq)+H+(aq)

If solid sodium acetate NaCH3CO2 is added to the solution then the concentration of CH3COO ions will increase as NaCH3CO2 is a strong electrolyte and will dissociate in aqueous solution giving CH3COO and Na+ ions.

  NaCH3CO2(s)Na+(aq)+CH3CO2(aq)

As a result due to the common ion effect, the reaction equilibrium will move towards left and [H+] will decrease. Suppression of dissociation of weak acid CH3COOH occur and pH of the solution will increase.

Hence, pH value of the aqueous solution of acetic acid will increase upon addition of solid sodium acetate.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

pH of the solution will increase, decrease or remains same has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

pH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the H+ ion in the solution. More the concentration of H+ ion in the solution, lower will be the pH value and more acidic will be the solution.

The expression for pH is given as,

  pH=log[H+]

 pOH of a solution is basically the measure of the molar concentration of the OH ion in the solution. More the concentration of OH ion in the solution lower will be the value of pOH and more basic will be the solution.

The expression for pOH is given as,

  pOH=log[OH]

pH is calculated using following relation.

  pH+pOH=14

Common ion effect is defined as the phenomenon of the suppression of the dissociation of weak acid or base in presence of strong electrolyte having a common ion.  The common ion effect changes pH of the solution.

For example, a weak acid HA undergo partial dissociation in aqueous solution and an equilibrium is established between the dissociated and un-dissociated acid given as follows,

  HA(aq.)+ H2O(l)H3O+(aq.)+ A1(aq.)

Now if in the solution strong electrolyte having a common ion H3O+ or  A1 is added then according to the Le-Chatelier’s principle if the concentration of any of the product will increase then the reaction equilibrium will move to that side of the equilibrium that will decrease the effect of increased concentration of the product. Therefore the reaction will move in a backward direction forming more of un-dissociated acid and decrease the concentration of H3O+ in the solution, as a result, pH of the solution will increase.

Explanation of Solution

Sodium hydroxide NaOH is a strong base and it dissociates completely into its constituent ions as follows in water,

  NaOH(aq)Na+(aq)+OH(aq)

Addition of solid sodium chloride NaCl to the solution does not affect pH because the common ion effect only suppresses the dissociation of weak acid or base in presence of strong electrolyte. Common ion effect does not affect the dissociation of strong acid or base.

The pH value of the aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide will decrease upon addition of solid sodium chloride.

Therefore, the pH value of the aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide will remain same upon addition of solid sodium chloride. pH of the solution does not change.

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Chapter 17 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 17.3 - The titration of 0.100 M acetic acid with 0.100 M...Ch. 17.3 - Calculate the pH after 75.0 mL of 0.100 M HO has...Ch. 17.3 - 1. What is the pH after 25.0 ml of 0.100 M NaOH...Ch. 17.3 - 2. What is the pH at the equivalence point in the...Ch. 17.3 - Use Figure 17.10 to decide which indicator is best...Ch. 17.3 - Phosphate ions are abundant in cells, both as the...Ch. 17.3 - A typical total phosphate concentration in a cell,...Ch. 17.4 - The barium ion concentration, [Ba2+], in a...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of AgCN in moles per...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of Ca(OH)2 in moles per...Ch. 17.4 - Calculate the solubility of BaSO4 (a) in pure...Ch. 17.4 - 12. Calculate the solubility of Zn(CN)2 at 25°C...Ch. 17.4 - What is the Ksp expression for silver carbonate?...Ch. 17.4 - 2. Using Ksp values, predict which salt in each...Ch. 17.4 - What is the solubility of PbSO4 in water at 25C?...Ch. 17.4 - 4. What is the solubility of PbSO4 in water at...Ch. 17.4 - Which compound should be more soluble in 0.1 MHCl...Ch. 17.5 - Solid Pbl2 (Ksp = 9.8 109) is placed in a beaker...Ch. 17.5 - What is the minimum concentration of I that can...Ch. 17.5 - You have 100.0 mL of 0.0010 M silver nitrate. Will...Ch. 17.5 - 1. Will SrSO4 precipitate from a solution...Ch. 17.6 - Silver nitrate (0.0050 mol) is added to 1.00 L of...Ch. 17.6 - 1. Iron(II) chloride (0.025 mol) is added to 1.00...Ch. 17.7 - Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 17.7 - 1. What is the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 17.7 - Approximately 0.10 g of sodium cyanide is fatal to...Ch. 17.7 - What is the minimum volume of 0.0071 M NaCN(aq)...Ch. 17.7 - Use the formation constant of [Au(CN)2] in...Ch. 17.7 - Silver undergoes similar reactions as those shown...Ch. 17.7 - Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 17 - Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease or...Ch. 17 - Does the pH of the solution increase, decrease, or...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of a solution that consists of 0.20...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of 0.15 M acetic acid to which 1.56...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the solution that results from...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the solution that results from...Ch. 17 - What is the pH of the buffer solution that...Ch. 17 - Lactic acid (CH3CHOHCO2H) is found in sour milk,...Ch. 17 - What mass of sodium acetate, NaCH3CO2, must he...Ch. 17 - What mass of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, must be...Ch. 17 - Calculate the pH of a solution that has an acetic...Ch. 17 - Calculate the pH of a solution that has an...Ch. 17 - What must the ratio of acetic acid to acetate ion...Ch. 17 - What must the ratio of H2PO4 to HPO42 be to have a...Ch. 17 - A buffer is composed of formic acid and its...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution is composed of 1.360 g of KH2PO4...Ch. 17 - Which of the following combinations would be the...Ch. 17 - Which of the following combinations would be the...Ch. 17 - Describe how to prepare a buffer solution from...Ch. 17 - Describe how to prepare a buffer solution from NH3...Ch. 17 - Determine the volume (in mL) of 1.00 M NaOH that...Ch. 17 - Determine the volume (in mL) of 1.00 M HC1 that...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution was prepared by adding 4.95 g of...Ch. 17 - You dissolve 0.425 g of NaOH in 2.00 L of a buffer...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution is prepared by adding 0.125 mol...Ch. 17 - What is the pH change when 20.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH...Ch. 17 - Phenol, C6H5OH, is a weak organic acid. Suppose...Ch. 17 - Assume you dissolve 0.235 g of the weak acid...Ch. 17 - You require 36.78 mL of 0.0105 M HCl to reach the...Ch. 17 - A titration of 25.0 mL of a solution of the weak...Ch. 17 - Without doing detailed calculations, sketch the...Ch. 17 - Without doing detailed calculations, sketch the...Ch. 17 - You titrate 25.0 mL of 0.10 M NH3 with 0.10 M HCl....Ch. 17 - Using Figure 17.11, suggest an indicator to use in...Ch. 17 - Using Figure 17.11, suggest an indicator to use in...Ch. 17 - Name two insoluble salts of each of the following...Ch. 17 - Name two insoluble salts of each of the following...Ch. 17 - Using the solubility guidelines (Figure 3.10),...Ch. 17 - Predict whether each of the fallowing is insoluble...Ch. 17 - For each of the following insoluble salts, (1)...Ch. 17 - For each of the following insoluble salts, (1)...Ch. 17 - When 1.55 g of solid thallium(I) bromide is added...Ch. 17 - At 20 C, a saturated aqueous solution of silver...Ch. 17 - When 250 mg of SrF2, strontium fluoride, is added...Ch. 17 - Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, dissolves in water to...Ch. 17 - You add 0.979 g of Pb(OH)2 to 1.00 L of pure water...Ch. 17 - You place 1.234 g of solid Ca(OH)2 in 1.00 L of...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of silver iodide in pure...Ch. 17 - What is the molar concentration of Au+(aq) in a...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of calcium fluoride, CaF2,...Ch. 17 - Estimate the solubility of lead(II) bromide (a) in...Ch. 17 - The Ksp value for radium sulfate, RaSO4, is 4.2 ...Ch. 17 - If 55 mg of lead(II) sulfate is placed in 250 mL...Ch. 17 - Use Ksp values to decide which compound in each of...Ch. 17 - Use Ksp values to decide which compound in each of...Ch. 17 - Calculate the molar solubility of silver...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility of silver bromide, AgBr,...Ch. 17 - Compare the solubility, in milligrams per...Ch. 17 - What is the solubility, in milligrams per...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility, in moles per liter, of...Ch. 17 - Calculate the solubility, in moles per liter, of...Ch. 17 - Which insoluble compound in each pair should be...Ch. 17 - Which compound in each pair is more soluble in...Ch. 17 - You have a solution that has a lead(II) ion...Ch. 17 - Sodium carbonate is added to a solution in which...Ch. 17 - If the concentration of Zn2+ in 10.0 mL of water...Ch. 17 - You have 95 mL of a solution that has a lead(II)...Ch. 17 - If the concentration of Mg2+ ion in seawater is...Ch. 17 - Will a precipitate of Mg(OH)2 form when 25.0 mL of...Ch. 17 - Zinc hydroxide is amphoteric (Section 16.10). 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HOCH2CH2NH2, can be...Ch. 17 - For the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.150 M...Ch. 17 - A buffer solution with it pH of 12.00 consists of...Ch. 17 - To have a buffer with a pH of 2.50, what volume of...Ch. 17 - What mass of Na3PO4 must be added to 80.0 mL of...Ch. 17 - You have a solution that contains AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2,...Ch. 17 - Once you have separated the three salts in Study...Ch. 17 - Suggest a method for separating a precipitate...Ch. 17 - Which of the following barium salts should...Ch. 17 - Explain why the solubility of Ag3PO4 can be...Ch. 17 - Two acids, each approximately 0.01 M in...Ch. 17 - Composition diagrams, commonly known as alpha...Ch. 17 - The composition diagram, or alpha plot, for the...Ch. 17 - The chemical name for aspirin is acetylsalicylic...Ch. 17 - Aluminum hydroxide reacts with phosphoric acid to...

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