9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097




9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

What is the second law of thermodynamics? For any process, there are four possible sign combinations for ᅀSsys and ᅀSsurr. Which sign combination(s) always give a spontaneous process? Which sign combination(s) always give a non-spontaneous process? Which sign combination(s) may or may not give a spontaneous process?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The second law of thermodynamics; the sign combinations for ΔSsys and ΔSsurr that will always give a spontaneous process and the sign combinations for non spontaneous process are to be stated.

Concept introduction:

Thermodynamics is associated with heat, temperature and its relation with energy and work. It helps us to predict whether a process will take place or not. It is governed by three laws which tell about the conservation and transformation of energy and properties of system in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature.

To determine: The second law of thermodynamics and sign combinations for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes.



The formula to calculate ΔSuniv is,


A given process is spontaneous when the sign of ΔSuniv is positive.

The sign combinations of ΔSsys and ΔSsurr for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes are,

Sign of ΔS

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