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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

At what temperatures will the following processes be spontaneous?

a. ∆H = −18 kJ and ∆S = − 60. J/K

b. ∆H = +18 kJ and ∆S = + 60. J/K

c. ∆H = +18 kJ and ∆S = − 60. J/K

d. ∆H = −18 kJ and ∆S = +60. J/K

 (a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The temperature at which the process is spontaneous is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction:

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

A reaction is said to be spontaneous if the value of ΔG is less than zero.

Explanation

Explanation

Given

The value of ΔH is 18kJ .

The value of ΔS is 60J/K .

The conversion of joule (J) into kilo-joule (kJ) is done as,

1J=103kJ

Hence,

The conversion of 60J/K into joule is,

60J=(60×103)kJ=0.060kJ

Formula

The formula of ΔG is,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

Where,

  • ΔH is the enthalpy of reaction

 (b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The temperature at which the process is spontaneous is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction:

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

A reaction is said to be spontaneous if the value of ΔG is less than zero.

 (c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The temperature at which the process is spontaneous is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction:

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

A reaction is said to be spontaneous if the value of ΔG is less than zero.

 (d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The temperature at which the process is spontaneous is to be predicted for given options.

Concept introduction:

The expression for free energy change is,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

A reaction is said to be spontaneous if the value of ΔG is less than zero.

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