Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909



Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909
Textbook Problem

K complexes first appear in which of the following stages during one full sleep cycle?

A. Stage N1

B. Stage N2

C. Stage N3


Summary Introduction


The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a form of test used to measure the electrical activity in the brain. The activity is characterized by the means of brain waves and is measured by frequency, amplitude, and polarity of the brain waves. The K complexes are the form of brain waves that are involved in reducing the activity towards dream stimulus, such as danger, and also help to retain memory traces.


Justification/ Explanation for the correct answer:

Option (b) is, ‘Stage N2.’ The K complexes are high amplitude waves with short duration (0.5 seconds) and are biphasic in nature. These complexes are observed during the N2 stage of non-REM (non-rapid-eye-movement) sleep and show a sharp negative deflection and slow downward deflection. They are initiated in the stage N2 and play a major role in memory inception and decrease the sensory response to danger or fright. Hence, option (b) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answer:

Option (a) is, ‘Stage N1.’ The stage N1 non-REM sleep is a light sleep stage and the major brain waves observed in this stage are alpha and theta waves. The beta waves are also observed but are rare...

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