   Chapter 17, Problem 66PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Sodium carbonate is added to a solution in which the concentration of Ni2+ ion is 0.0024 M. Will precipitation of NiCO3 occur (a) when the concentration of the carbonate ion is 1.0 × 10−6 M or (b) when it is 100 times greater (1.0 × 10−4 M)?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Whether the precipitation of NiCO3 occurs or not on addition sodium carbonate to a solution of Ni2+ has to be predicted.

Concept introduction:

Solubility product constant,Ksp is equilibrium constant and is defined as the product of the equilibrium concentration of the ions of the salt raised to the power of their coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

The expression for Ksp of a salt is given as,

AxBy(s)xAy+(aq)+yBx(aq)Ksp=[Ay+]x[Bx]y

Here,

• [Ay+] and [Bx] are equilibrium concentration.

Reaction quotient, Q, for a reaction is defined as the product of the concentration of the ions at any time of the reaction (other than equilibrium time ) of the salt raised to the power of their coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

The expression for Q of a salt is given as,

AxBy(s)xAy+(aq)+yBx(aq)Ksp=[Ay+]x[Bx]y

Here,

• [Ay+] and [Bx] are the concentration at any time except equilibrium.
1. 1. If Q=Ksp, this implies that the solution is saturated solution and the concentration of the ions have reached their maximum limit.
2. 2. If Q<Ksp, this implies that the solution is not saturated and more salt can be added to the solution or the salt present in the solution already will dissolve more until the precipitation starts.
3. 3. If Q>Ksp, this implies that the solution is oversaturated and precipitation of salt will occur.
Explanation

Value of reaction quotient,Q, is calculated and compared with the value of Ksp for NiCO3.

Given:

Refer to the Appendix J in the textbook for the value of Ksp.

The value of solubility product constant,Ksp, for NiCO3 is 1.4×107.

The concentration of Ni2+ ions present in the solution is 0.0024molL1.

The concentration of CO32 ions added to the solution is 1.0×106molL1.

When NiCO3 is dissolved in water it undergoes dissociation in as follows,

NiCO3(s)Ni2+(aq)+CO32(aq)

The Q expression for NiCO3 is,

Q=[Ni2+][CO32]

Substitute 0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Predict whether the precipitation of NiCO3 occurs or not on addition sodium carbonate to a solution of Ni2+.

Concept introduction:

Solubility product constant,Ksp is equilibrium constant and is defined as the product of the equilibrium concentration of the ions of the salt raised to the power of their coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

The expression for Ksp of a salt is given as,

AxBy(s)xAy+(aq)+yBx(aq)Ksp=[Ay+]x[Bx]y

Here,

• [Ay+] and [Bx] are equilibrium concentration.

Reaction quotient, Q, for a reaction is defined as the product of the concentration of the ions at any time of the reaction (other than equilibrium time ) of the salt raised to the power of their coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

The expression for Q of a salt is given as,

AxBy(s)xAy+(aq)+yBx(aq)Ksp=[Ay+]x[Bx]y

Here,

• [Ay+] and [Bx] are the concentration at any time except equilibrium.
1. 4. If Q=Ksp, this implies that the solution is saturated solution and the concentration of the ions have reached their maximum limit.
2. 5. If Q<Ksp, this implies that the solution is not saturated and more salt can be added to the solution or the salt present in the solution already will dissolve more until the precipitation starts.
3. 6. If Q>Ksp, this implies that the solution is oversaturated and precipitation of salt will occur.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

The top food sources of zinc include a. grapes. b. unleavened bread. c. shellfish. d. potato.

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Describe how bone first develops.

Human Biology (MindTap Course List)

List four routes by which water leaves the body.

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry 