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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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How is the pH scale defined? What range of pH values corresponds to acidic solutions? What range corresponds to basic solutions? Why is pH = 7.00 considered neutral? When the pH of a solution changes by one unit, by what factor does the hydrogen ion concentration change in the solution? How is pOH defined? How arc pH and pOH for a given solution related? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The pH scale is to be defined and the range of pH values corresponds to acidic and basic solutions are to be defined. The reason corresponding to the fact that the pH=7.00 is considered neutral is to be stated. The factor by which the hydrogen ion concentration change in the solution changes when the pH of a solution changes by one unit, is to be calculated. The term pOH is to be defined. The relationship between pH and pOH is to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

The pH scale tells about the strength of an acid and a base. It measures the concentration of the hydrogen ions. There is an inverse relation between the pH value and the concentration of the hydrogen ion. Higher the concentration of hydrogen ions, lesser the value of pH.

The pH value is calculated by the formula as follows:

pH=logH+.

Explanation

The acidity or basicity of a solution is measured by the pH scale.

If the pH value of a solution is less than 7 indicates the solution is acid while if the pH value of a solution is more than 7 indicates the solution is basic.

At pH=7.00, the concentration of the hydrogen ions and the concentration of hydroxide ions are equal. Therefore, the value of pH=7.00 is considered as neutral.

When the pH of a solution is changed by one unit, the concentration of hydrogen ions will be increase by the factor of 10.

The relation between the pH value and concentration of hydrogen ions is given by,

pH=logH+10pH=H+

The pOH measures the concentration of the hydroxyl ions. The pOH value is calculated by the formula,

pOH=logOH

It is assumed that for a solution, the value of KW at 25C is given as

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