9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097




9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

If you calculate a value for ∆G° for a reaction using the values of Δ G f in Appendix 4 and get a negative number, is it correct to say that the reaction is always spontaneous? Why or why not? Free energy changes also depend on concentration. For gases, how is G related to the pressure of the gas? What are standard pressures for gases and standard concentrations for solutes? How do you calculate ∆G for a reaction at nonstandard conditions? The equation to determine ∆G at nonstandard conditions has Q in it: What is Q? A reaction is spontaneous as long as ∆G is negative; that is, reactions always proceed as long as the products have a lower free energy than the reactants. What is so special about equilibrium? Why don’t reactions move away from equilibrium?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon Gibbs free energy is to be stated.

Concept introduction: Thermodynamics is associated with heat, temperature and its relation with energy and work. It helps us to predict whether a process will take place or not. But it gives no information about the time required for the process. The terms associated with thermodynamics are system, surrounding, entropy, spontaneity and many more.

To determine: The answers of various questions based upon Gibbs free energy.



Free energy changes depends upon pressure of the gas.

The relationship between free energy changes and pressure of the gas is,



  • G0 is the standard free energy change.
  • G is the free energy change of the gas.
  • P is the pressure of the gas.
  • T is the temperature.

The standard pressure for gases is 1atm .

The standard concentration for solutes is 1mole .


The ΔG for a reaction at nonstandard condition is calculated by the equation given below

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