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Batteries are galvanic cells. What happens to as a battery discharges? Does a battery represent a system at equilibrium? Explain. What is when a battery reaches equilibrium? How are batteries and fuel cells alike? How are they different? The U.S. space program utilizes hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells to produce power for its spacecraft. What is a hydrogen–Oxygen fuel cell?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 17, Problem 7RQ
Textbook Problem
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Batteries are galvanic cells. What happens to Chapter 17, Problem 7RQ, Batteries are galvanic cells. What happens to as a battery discharges? Does a battery represent a , example  1as a battery discharges? Does a battery represent a system at equilibrium? Explain. What is Chapter 17, Problem 7RQ, Batteries are galvanic cells. What happens to as a battery discharges? Does a battery represent a , example  2when a battery reaches equilibrium? How are batteries and fuel cells alike? How are they different? The U.S. space program utilizes hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells to produce power for its spacecraft. What is a hydrogen–Oxygen fuel cell?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Batteries being galvanic cells and the use of hydrogen-oxygen by the U.S. space program to produce power for its spacecraft are given. The concept behind the working of fuel cells and battery is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

Batteries are a combination of galvanic cells. Just like galvanic cell, the value of cell potential decreases as the battery discharges and attains the zero value at equilibrium.

Fuel cells are also used for the generation of electricity. The hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells are used for the power generation in the spacecraft and they are eco-friendly.

To determine: The effect of discharge of battery over Ecell ; effect of equilibrium over the system and; similarities and differences between battery and fuel cells; the concept of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

Explanation of Solution

There occurs decrease in Ecell as the battery discharges and it almost tends towards zero.

During discharging, the electrons transfer from anode to cathode and this neutralizes the negative charge over the cathode. Due to this, the potential difference between anode and cathode decreases and finally approaches zero.

The battery can represent a system at equilibrium, but Ecell=0 at equilibrium.

At equilibrium, the value of cell potential comes out to be zero and hence, no work can be obtained from the battery at equilibrium.

At equilibrium Ecell attains the value of zero.

At equilibrium Ecell becomes zero and therefore the Gibbs free energy change is also zero and therefore the useful work cannot be obtained for a system present at the equilibrium state.

The battery and fuel cells are alike in the manner that both are the galvanic cells.

Both the battery and the fuel cell are the galvanic cell that are used for the generation of useful work.

The battery and fuel cells are different in the sense that battery does not require supply of reactants to carry out a reaction, while the fuel cells require continuous feeding of reactants to carry out a reaction.

The reactants required for the generation of electricity are already present inside the battery, but for a fuel cell to work out, the reactant have to be supplied continuously. Fuel cells will work till the time the reactants are supplied to them.

In the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, a porous anode and a cathode have an electrolyte sandwiched between them. Hydrogen is supplied to the anode and a catalyst separates the electrons from protons, while the oxygen at the cathode combines with the electrons and leads to the formation of hydroxide ions

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Chapter 17 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 17 - In making a specific galvanic cell, explain how...Ch. 17 - You want to plate out nickel metal from a nickel...Ch. 17 - A copper penny can be dissolved in nitric acid but...Ch. 17 - Sketch a cell that forms iron metal from iron(II)...Ch. 17 - Which of the following is the best reducing agent:...Ch. 17 - You are told that metal A is a better reducing...Ch. 17 - Explain the following relationships: G and w, cell...Ch. 17 - Explain why cell potentials are not multiplied by...Ch. 17 - What is the difference between and ? When is equal...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: What happens...Ch. 17 - Look up the reduction potential for Fe3+ to Fe2+....Ch. 17 - If the cell potential is proportional to work and...Ch. 17 - Is the following statement true or false?...Ch. 17 - Define oxidation and reduction in terms of both...Ch. 17 - Assign oxidation numbers to all the atoms in each...Ch. 17 - Specify which of the following equations represent...Ch. 17 - The Ostwald process for the commercial production...Ch. 17 - What is electrochemistry? What are redox...Ch. 17 - When balancing equations in Chapter 5, we did not...Ch. 17 - When magnesium metal is added to a beaker of...Ch. 17 - How can one construct a galvanic cell from two...Ch. 17 - The free energy change for a reaction, G, is an...Ch. 17 - What is wrong with the following statement: The...Ch. 17 - When jump-starting a car with a dead battery, the...Ch. 17 - In theory, most metals should easily corrode in...Ch. 17 - Consider the electrolysis of a molten salt of some...Ch. 17 - Consider the following electrochemical cell: a. If...Ch. 17 - Balance the following oxidationreduction reactions...Ch. 17 - Balance the following oxidationreduction reactions...Ch. 17 - Balance the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 17 - Balance the following oxidationreduction reactions...Ch. 17 - Chlorine gas was first prepared in 1774 by C. W....Ch. 17 - Gold metal will not dissolve in either...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: Label the...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: a. Label the...Ch. 17 - Sketch the galvanic cells based on the following...Ch. 17 - Sketch the galvanic cells based on the following...Ch. 17 - Calculate values for the galvanic cells in...Ch. 17 - Calculate values for the galvanic cells in...Ch. 17 - Sketch the galvanic cells based on the following...Ch. 17 - Sketch the galvanic cells based on the following...Ch. 17 - Give the standard line notation for each cell in...Ch. 17 - Give the standard line notation for each cell in...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cells: For each...Ch. 17 - Give the balanced cell equation and determine for...Ch. 17 - Calculate values for the following g cells. Which...Ch. 17 - Calculate values for the following cells. Which...Ch. 17 - Chlorine dioxide (C1O2), which is produced by the...Ch. 17 - The amount of manganese in steel is determined by...Ch. 17 - Calculate the maximum amount of work that can be...Ch. 17 - Calculate the maximum amount of work that can be...Ch. 17 - Estimate for the half-reaction 2H2O+2eH2+2OH given...Ch. 17 - The equation G = nF also can be applied to...Ch. 17 - Glucose is the major fuel for most living cells....Ch. 17 - Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have shown some...Ch. 17 - Using data from Table 17-1, place the following in...Ch. 17 - Using data from Table 17-1, place the following in...Ch. 17 - Answer the following questions using data from...Ch. 17 - Answer the following questions using data from...Ch. 17 - Consider only the species (at standard conditions)...Ch. 17 - Consider only the species (at standard conditions)...Ch. 17 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 17 - Use the table of standard reduction potentials...Ch. 17 - Hydrazine is somewhat toxic. Use the...Ch. 17 - The compound with the formula TlI3 is a black...Ch. 17 - A galvanic cell is based on the following...Ch. 17 - Consider the concentration cell in Fig. 17-10. If...Ch. 17 - Consider the concentration cell shown below....Ch. 17 - Consider a concentration cell similar to the one...Ch. 17 - The overall reaction in the lead storage battery...Ch. 17 - Calculate the pH of the cathode compartment for...Ch. 17 - Consider the cell described below:...Ch. 17 - Consider the cell described below:...Ch. 17 - Calculate G and K at 25C for the reactions in...Ch. 17 - Calculate G and K at 25C for the reactions in...Ch. 17 - Consider the galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - Consider the galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a standard...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a nickel metal...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a standard...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a nickel metal...Ch. 17 - Consider a concentration cell that has both...Ch. 17 - You have a concentration cell in which the cathode...Ch. 17 - Under standard conditions, what reaction occurs,...Ch. 17 - A disproportionation reaction involves a substance...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell at 25C:...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a silver metal...Ch. 17 - Calculate Ksp for iron(II) sulfide given the...Ch. 17 - For the following half-reaction, = 2.07 V:...Ch. 17 - Calculate for the following half-reaction:...Ch. 17 - The solubility product for CuI(s) is 1.1 102...Ch. 17 - How long will it take to plate out each of the...Ch. 17 - The electrolysis of BiO+ produces pure bismuth....Ch. 17 - What mass of each of the following substances can...Ch. 17 - Aluminum is produced commercially by the...Ch. 17 - An unknown metal M is electrolyzed. It took 74.1 s...Ch. 17 - Electrolysis of an alkaline earth metal chloride...Ch. 17 - What volume of F2 gas, at 25C and 1.00 atm, is...Ch. 17 - What volumes of H2(g) and O2(g) at STP are...Ch. 17 - A single HallHeroult cell (as shown in Fig. 17-22)...Ch. 17 - A factory wants to produce 1.00 103 kg barium...Ch. 17 - It took 2.30 min using a current of 2.00 A to...Ch. 17 - A solution containing Pt4+ is electrolyzed with a...Ch. 17 - A solution at 25C contains 1.0 M Cd2+, 1.0 M Ag+,...Ch. 17 - Consider the following half-reactions: A...Ch. 17 - In the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of...Ch. 17 - Copper can be plated onto a spoon by placing the...Ch. 17 - What reactions take place at the cathode and the...Ch. 17 - What reaction will take place at the Cathode and...Ch. 17 - What reactions take place at the cathode and the...Ch. 17 - What reaction will take place at the Cathode and...Ch. 17 - Gold is produced electrochemically from an aqueous...Ch. 17 - The blond alcohol (C2H5OH) level can be determined...Ch. 17 - The saturated calomel electrode. abbreviated SCE....Ch. 17 - Consider the following half-reactions: Explain why...Ch. 17 - Consider the standard galvanic cell based on the...Ch. 17 - A standard galvanic cell is constructed so that...Ch. 17 - The black silver sulfide discoloration of...Ch. 17 - In 1973 the wreckage of the Civil War ironclad USS...Ch. 17 - When aluminum foil is placed in hydrochloric acid,...Ch. 17 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 17 - A fuel cell designed to react grain alcohol with...Ch. 17 - The overall reaction and equilibrium constant...Ch. 17 - What is the maximum work that can be obtained from...Ch. 17 - The overall reaction and standard cell potential...Ch. 17 - An experimental fuel cell has been designed that...Ch. 17 - The ultimate electron acceptor in the respiration...Ch. 17 - One of the few industrial-scale processes that...Ch. 17 - It took 150. s for a current of 1.25 A to plate...Ch. 17 - It takes 15 kWh (kilowatt-hours) of electrical...Ch. 17 - In the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution,...Ch. 17 - An aqueous solution of an unknown salt of...Ch. 17 - Which of the following statement(s) is/are true?...Ch. 17 - Consider a galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - Consider a galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - Consider a galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell consists of a silver metal...Ch. 17 - An aqueous solution of PdCl2 is electrolyzed for...Ch. 17 - Balance the following equations by the...Ch. 17 - Combine the equations to derive an expression for...Ch. 17 - The overall reaction in the lead storage battery...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: Calculate...Ch. 17 - A zinc-copper battery is constructed at follows at...Ch. 17 - A galvanic cell is based on the following...Ch. 17 - Consider a cell based on the following...Ch. 17 - The measurement of pH using a glass electrode...Ch. 17 - You have a concentration cell with Cu electrodes...Ch. 17 - A galvanic cell is based on the following...Ch. 17 - Given the following two standard reduction...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: Calculate...Ch. 17 - A chemist wishes to determine the concentration of...Ch. 17 - Consider the following galvanic cell: A 15 0-mole...Ch. 17 - When copper reacts with nitric acid, a mixture of...Ch. 17 - The following standard reduction potentials have...Ch. 17 - An electrochemical cell is set up using the...Ch. 17 - Three electrochemical cells were connected in...Ch. 17 - A silver concentration cell is set up at 25C as...Ch. 17 - A galvanic cell is based on the following...Ch. 17 - The table below lists the cell potentials for the...

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