   # The Ca 2+ ion in hard water can be precipitated as CaCO 3 by adding soda ash, Na 2 CO 3 . If the calcium ion concentration in hard water is 0.010 M and if the Na 2 CO 3 is added until the carbonate ion concentration is 0.050 M, what percentage of the calcium ions has been removed from the water? (You may neglect carbonate ion hydrolysis.) ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 17, Problem 99GQ
Textbook Problem
26 views

## The Ca2+ ion in hard water can be precipitated as CaCO3 by adding soda ash, Na2CO3. If the calcium ion concentration in hard water is 0.010 M and if the Na2CO3 is added until the carbonate ion concentration is 0.050 M, what percentage of the calcium ions has been removed from the water? (You may neglect carbonate ion hydrolysis.)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Percentage of calcium ions removed from the hard water containing Ca2+ ions by adding soda ash Na2CO3 in the water has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The solubility of a salt is defined as the maximum amount of salt that can be dissolved in definite amount of solvent. It is expressed in moles per liter or grams per liter. Solubility in terms of moles per liter is called molar solubility and is defined as the number of moles of solute (salt) dissolved in per liter of solution.

Solubility product constant Ksp is an equilibrium constant and is defined as the product of the equilibrium concentration of the ions of the salt raised to the power of their coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

The expression for Ksp of a salt is given as,

AxBy(s)xAy+(aq)+yBx(aq)Ksp=[Ay+]x[Bx]y

### Explanation of Solution

Percentage of calcium ions removed from the hard water is calculated below.

Given:

Solubility product constant Ksp for CaCO3 is 3.4×109.

The concentration of carbonate ions added is 0.050 M.

The concentration of calcium ions present in the hard water is 0.01 M.

CaCO3 dissociates as follows in water,

CaCO3(s)Ca2+(aq)+CO32(aq)

The expression for Ksp,

Ksp=[Ca2+][CO32] (1)

When the concentration of carbonate ion in the solution is 0.050 M, the concentration of Calcium ions removed is,

[Ca2+]=Ksp[CO32]=3

### Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

#### The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Find more solutions based on key concepts
White blood cells include all except the following: phagocytes killer T-cells B-cells antibodies

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

A salt does not release ________ in water. a. ions b. H+

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

In what ways were the models of Ptolemy and Copernicus similar?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

How can errors in the cell cycle lead to cancer in humans?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

What were the stimuli to Polynesian colonization? How were the long voyages accomplished?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin

Consider an object on a rotating disk a distance r from its center, held in place on the disk by static frictio...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included) 