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Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate in a process called glycolysis . In the presence of sufficient oxygen in the cell, pyruvate is oxidized to CO 2 and H 2 O to make further energy available. However, under extreme conditions not enough oxygen can be supplied to the cells, so muscle cells produce lactate ion according to the reaction where Δ r G °′ = −25.1 kJ/mol. In living cells, the pH value is about 7. The hydronium ion concentration is constant and is included in Δ G °, which is then called Δ r G °′ ( Applying Chemical Principles 18.1 Thermodynamics and Living Things ). ( This problem is taken from the problems for the 36th International Chemistry Olympiad for high school students held in Kiel Germany in 2004 .) (a) Calculate Δ r G ° for the reaction at 25 °C. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant K ′ . (The hydronium ion concentration is included in the constant. That is, K′ = K · [H 2 O + | for the reaction at 25 °C and pH = 7.0.) (c) Δ r G ° is the free energy change under standard conditions; that is, the concentrations of all reactants (except H 3 O + are 1.00 mol/L. Calculate Δ r G ° at 25 °C, assuming the following concentrations in the cell: pyruvate, 380 μ mol/L; NADH, 50 μ mol/L; lactate ion, 3700 μ mol/L; and NAD + ion, 540 μ mol/L.

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074
BuyFind

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399074

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 18, Problem 106SCQ
Textbook Problem

Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate in a process called glycolysis. In the presence of sufficient oxygen in the cell, pyruvate is oxidized to CO2 and H2O to make further energy available. However, under extreme conditions not enough oxygen can be supplied to the cells, so muscle cells produce lactate ion according to the reaction

Chapter 18, Problem 106SCQ, Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown

where ΔrG°′ = −25.1 kJ/mol. In living cells, the pH value is about 7. The hydronium ion concentration is constant and is included in ΔG°, which is then called ΔrG°′ (Applying Chemical Principles 18.1 Thermodynamics and Living Things). (This problem is taken from the problems for the 36th International Chemistry Olympiad for high school students held in Kiel Germany in 2004.)

  1. (a) Calculate ΔrG° for the reaction at 25 °C.
  2. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant K. (The hydronium ion concentration is included in the constant. That is, K′ = K · [H2O+| for the reaction at 25 °C and pH = 7.0.)
  3. (c) ΔrG° is the free energy change under standard conditions; that is, the concentrations of all reactants (except H3O+ are 1.00 mol/L. Calculate ΔrG° at 25 °C, assuming the following concentrations in the cell: pyruvate, 380 μmol/L; NADH, 50 μmol/L; lactate ion, 3700 μmol/L; and NAD+ ion, 540 μmol/L.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 18.3 - Predict which substance in each pair has the...Ch. 18.3 - Calculate the standard entropy changes for the...Ch. 18.4 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.6 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.6 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.6 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.6 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.6 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.6 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.7 - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.7 - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Solid NH4NO3 is placed in a beaker containing...Ch. 18 - Acetic acid, a weak acid, was added to a beaker...Ch. 18 - Identify the following processes as either...Ch. 18 - Identify the following processes as either...Ch. 18 - Predict whether each of the following processes...Ch. 18 - Predict whether each of the following processes...Ch. 18 - Indicate which of the following processes are...Ch. 18 - Indicate which of the following processes are...Ch. 18 - What information is needed to calculate the...Ch. 18 - What information is needed to calculate the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change that occurs when 0.50...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change that occurs when 1.00...Ch. 18 - Calculate the change in entropy for a system in...Ch. 18 - Calculate the change in entropy of a system with...Ch. 18 - The third law of thermodynamics says that a...Ch. 18 - Identify trends in S values: (a) For the halogens:...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? 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