menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

Classify each of the reactions according to one of the four reaction types summarized in Table 18.1. (a) Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2 Al(s) → 2 Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s) Δ r H ° = −851.5 kj/mol-rxn Δ r S ° = −375.2 J/K · mol-rxn (b) N 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) → 2 NO 2 (g) Δ r H ° = 66.2 kJ/mol-rxn Δ r S ° = −121.6 J/K · mol-rxn TABLE 18.1 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Be Spontaneous Under Standard Conditions

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 13PS
Textbook Problem
5 views

Classify each of the reactions according to one of the four reaction types summarized in Table 18.1.

  1. (a) Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al(s) → 2 Fe(s) + Al2O3(s)

    ΔrH° = −851.5 kj/mol-rxn

    ΔrS° = −375.2 J/K · mol-rxn

  2. (b) N2(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 NO2(g)

    ΔrH° = 66.2 kJ/mol-rxn

    ΔrS° = −121.6 J/K · mol-rxn

TABLE 18.1 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Be Spontaneous Under Standard Conditions

Chapter 18, Problem 13PS, Classify each of the reactions according to one of the four reaction types summarized in Table 18.1.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction Fe2O3(s)+2Al(s)2Fe(s)+Al2O3(s) should be classified based on reaction types discussed in Table 18.1 on the basis of given ΔS and ΔH values.

Concept introduction: The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔS(universe)= ΔS(system)+ΔS(surroundings)

The ΔS(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔS(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(system)=ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

The ΔS(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(surroundings)=ΔrHT

Here, ΔrH is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Thus, a reaction can be categorized as spontaneous or non-spontaneous on the basis of ΔS and ΔH values.

Explanation of Solution

Referring Table 18.1 the given reaction classified as follows,

The given reaction is,

  Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s)2Fe(s) + Al2O3(s)

The value of ΔrH is 851.5 kJ/mol- rxn

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The reaction N2(g) + 2O2(g)2NO2(g) should be classified based on reaction types discussed in Table 18.1 on the basis of given ΔS and ΔH values.

Concept introduction: The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔS(universe)= ΔS(system)+ΔS(surroundings)

The ΔS(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔS(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(system)=ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

The ΔS(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(surroundings)=ΔrHT

Here, ΔrH is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Thus, a reaction can be categorized as spontaneous or non-spontaneous on the basis of ΔS and ΔH values.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) a...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) SiCl4(g)...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 H2(g) SiH4(g)...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the decomposition of 1...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the formation of 1 mol...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - For the reaction BaCO3(s) BaO(s) + CO2(g), rG =...Ch. 18 - For the reaction TiCl2(s) + Cl2(g) TiCl4(), rG =...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Heating some metal carbonates, among them...Ch. 18 - Calculate rH and rS for the reaction of tin(IV)...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements at...Ch. 18 - For the decomposition of solid calcium carbonate...Ch. 18 - Compare the compounds in each set below and decide...Ch. 18 - Using standard entropy values, calculate rS for...Ch. 18 - About 5 billion kilograms of benzene, C6H6, are...Ch. 18 - Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an...Ch. 18 - Is the combustion of ethane, C2H6, product-favored...Ch. 18 - Write a balanced equation that depicts the...Ch. 18 - When vapors from hydrochloric acid and aqueous...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(system), S(surroundings), and...Ch. 18 - Methanol is now widely used as a fuel in race...Ch. 18 - The enthalpy of vaporization of liquid diethyl...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change, rS, for the...Ch. 18 - Using thermodynamic data, estimate the normal...Ch. 18 - The following reaction is reactant-favored at...Ch. 18 - When calcium carbonate is heated strongly, CO2 gas...Ch. 18 - Sodium reacts violently with water according to...Ch. 18 - Yeast can produce ethanol by the fermentation of...Ch. 18 - Elemental boron, in the form of thin fibers, can...Ch. 18 - Estimate the vapor pressure of ethanol at 37 C...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant, Kp, for N2O4(g) 2...Ch. 18 - Estimate the boiling point of water in Denver,...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant for the butane ...Ch. 18 - A crucial reaction for the production of synthetic...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG for the decomposition of sulfur...Ch. 18 - Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of...Ch. 18 - A cave in Mexico was recently discovered to have...Ch. 18 - Wet limestone is used to scrub SO2 gas from the...Ch. 18 - Sulfur undergoes a phase transition between 80 and...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change for dissolving HCl...Ch. 18 - Some metal oxides can be decomposed to the metal...Ch. 18 - Copper(II) oxide, CuO, can be reduced to copper...Ch. 18 - Calculate fG for HI(g) at 350 C, given the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 18 - Titanium(IV) oxide is converted to titanium...Ch. 18 - Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] is a...Ch. 18 - Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it...Ch. 18 - Explain why each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Decide whether each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Under what conditions is the entropy of a pure...Ch. 18 - In Chapter 13, you learned that entropy, as well...Ch. 18 - Consider the formation of NO(g) from its elements....Ch. 18 - Write a chemical equation for the oxidation of...Ch. 18 - The normal melting point of benzene, C6H6, is 5.5...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard molar entropy change, rS,...Ch. 18 - For each of the following processes, predict the...Ch. 18 - Heater Meals are food packages that contain their...Ch. 18 - Use values of fG for solid and gaseous iodine at...Ch. 18 - Oxygen dissolved in water can cause corrosion in...Ch. 18 - The formation of diamond from graphite is a...Ch. 18 - Iodine, I2, dissolves readily in carbon...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the reaction of Fe2O3(s) and...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the decomposition of 1.0 mol...Ch. 18 - Consider the reaction of NO and Cl2 to produce...Ch. 18 - Two processes that can be used to generate...Ch. 18 - Hydrogen and methane are two possible replacements...Ch. 18 - The Haber-Bosch process for the production of...Ch. 18 - Muscle cells need energy to contract. One...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of key bone proteins. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What causes an aging giant star to produce a planetary nebula?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

Review. Miranda, a satellite of Uranus, is shown in Figure P13.5a. It can be modeled as a sphere of radius 242 ...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Come up with your own terms to replace heat capacity, specific heat, and molar specific heat.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Foundations and Connections

How do some stars avoid the helium flash?

Foundations of Astronomy (MindTap Course List)