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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425
BuyFind

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425

Solutions

Chapter 18, Problem 1ALQ
Textbook Problem

Sketch a galvanic cell, and explain how it works. Look at Figs. 18.1 and 18.5. Explain what is occurring in each container and why the cell in Fig. 18.5 “works,” but the one in Fig. 18.1 does not.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: A galvanic cell should be sketched and how it works should be explained. Considering the figures 18.1 and 18.5 , what is occurring in each container should be explained and why the cell in figure 18.5 works, but the one in figure 18.1 does not should be discussed.

Concept Introduction:A Galvanic cell also known as electrochemical battery, a device that exploits a spontaneous oxidation reduction reaction to produce electrical energy. Here oxidizing agent and reducing agent has been separated, so that the electron/s generated by oxidation should travel through a wire from reducing agent to oxidizing agent.

Explanation of Solution

The galvanic cell is sketched as follows:

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, Chapter 18, Problem 1ALQ

When reducing agent and oxidizing agent mixed together in a container, electron transfer occurs. But chemical energy generated by this cannot be used for any work. This can be achieved by separating the reducing agent and oxidizing agent and let the electron transfer happen through a wire. So electrons removing from the reducing agent will travel through the wire to the oxidizing agent. The electric current generated by the electron flow through the wire can be directed through an electronic device. To keep the net charge of each container zero, the two solutions are connected by a salt bridge which filled with strong electrolyte.

In the figure 18.1 , the beaker in the left contains the oxidizing agent, MnO42-, which undergoes reduction by accepting electrons and forms Mn2+. The beaker in the right contains the reducing agent, Fe2+ which undergoes oxidation by removing electrons and converts into Fe3+.

According to the figure 18.1 , electrons flow only from reducing agent to the oxidizing agent. this will build up a negative charge in the left container and a positive charge in the right container. This will create a charge separation and to create charge separation large amount of energy is needed. So, no electron flow occurs under these conditions. This problem has been solved in the figure 18.5 . The solutions have been connected through a salt bridge without mixing the two solutions. Therefore the electrons from the reducing agent will flow through the wire to the oxidizing agent and the ions in the aqueous solution flows from one container to the other through salt bridge keeping the net charge of the each container zero.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
Ch. 18 - Why do we say that when something gains electrons...Ch. 18 - The equationAg++CuCu2++Ag has equal numbers of...Ch. 18 - In balancing oxidation-reduction equations, why is...Ch. 18 - What does it mean for a substance to be oxidized?...Ch. 18 - Label the following parts of the galvanic cell....Ch. 18 - Give some examples of how we make good use of...Ch. 18 - How do chemists define the processes of oxidation...Ch. 18 - For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - _________ lets us keep track of electrons in...Ch. 18 - Why must the sum of all the oxidation states of...Ch. 18 - Explain why, although it is not an ionic compound,...Ch. 18 - . Why is fluorine always assigned an oxidation...Ch. 18 - . The sum of all the oxidation states of all the...Ch. 18 - . What must be the sum of the oxidation states of...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . What is the oxidation state of sulfur in each of...Ch. 18 - . What is the oxidation state of nitrogen in each...Ch. 18 - . What is the oxidation state of chlorine in each...Ch. 18 - . What is the oxidation state of manganese in each...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states o all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Oxidation can be defined as a loss of electrons...Ch. 18 - . Reduction can be defined as a gain of electrons...Ch. 18 - . What is an oxidizing agent? What is a reducing...Ch. 18 - . Does an oxidizing agent increase or decrease its...Ch. 18 - . Does an oxidizing agent donate or accept...Ch. 18 - . The “Chemistry in Focus” segment Do We Age by...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . Pennies in the United States consist of a zinc...Ch. 18 - . Iron ores, usually oxides of iron, are converted...Ch. 18 - . Although magnesium metal does not react with...Ch. 18 - . Potassium iodide in solution reacts readily with...Ch. 18 - . In what two respects must oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - . Why is a systematic method for balancing...Ch. 18 - . What is a half-reaction? What does each of the...Ch. 18 - . Why must the number of electrons lost in the...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions....Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions....Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions,...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions,...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following...Ch. 18 - . Iodide ion, I- , is one of the most easily...Ch. 18 - . Nitric acid is a very strong acid, but is also a...Ch. 18 - . Sketch a schematic representation of a typical...Ch. 18 - 50. What is a salt bridge? Why is a salt bridge...Ch. 18 - . In which direction do electrons flow in a...Ch. 18 - . What type of reaction takes place at the cathode...Ch. 18 - . Consider the oxidation-reduction reaction...Ch. 18 - . Consider the oxidation—reduction reaction...Ch. 18 - . Write the chemical equation for the overall cell...Ch. 18 - . What are some advantages of using lithium ion...Ch. 18 - . _________ is the process of returning metals to...Ch. 18 - 58. Explain how some metals, notably aluminum,...Ch. 18 - 59. Pure iron ordinarily rusts quickly, but steel...Ch. 18 - . The “Chemistry in Focus” segment Stainless...Ch. 18 - . How does an electrolysis cell differ from a...Ch. 18 - . What are some important uses of electrolysis?Ch. 18 - . Although aluminum is one of the most abundant...Ch. 18 - . The “Chemistry in Focus” segment Water-Powered...Ch. 18 - 65. Reactions in which one or more _________ are...Ch. 18 - . Another name for the term oxidation stare is...Ch. 18 - . Reduction may be described as a(n) of electrons...Ch. 18 - . In assigning oxidation states for a covalently...Ch. 18 - . The sum of the oxidation states of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . What is an oxidizing agent? Is an oxidizing...Ch. 18 - . An oxidizing agent causes the...Ch. 18 - . To function as a good reducing agent, a species...Ch. 18 - . When we balance an oxidation-reduction equation,...Ch. 18 - . To obtain useful electrical energy from an...Ch. 18 - 75. An electrochemical cell that produces a...Ch. 18 - . Which process (oxidation/reduction) takes place...Ch. 18 - . At which electrode (anode/cathode) do species...Ch. 18 - . In a(n) _____ cell, electrons flow through a...Ch. 18 - . The “pressure” on electrons to flow from one...Ch. 18 - . The process of _________ involves forcing a...Ch. 18 - . The common acid dry cell battery typically...Ch. 18 - . Corrosion of a metal represents its ______ by...Ch. 18 - . Although aluminium is a reactive metal, pure...Ch. 18 - . For each of the following unbalanced...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . Carbon compounds containing double bonds (such...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following...Ch. 18 - . For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - . For each of the following oxidation-reduction...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation sates to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation stales to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . In each of the following reactions, identify...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions....Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following half-reactions,...Ch. 18 - . Balance each of the following...Ch. 18 - . Consider a galvanic cell based on the following...Ch. 18 - . Consider the oxidation—reduction reaction...Ch. 18 - . The Chemistry in Focus” segmentYellow...Ch. 18 - . Assign the oxidation state for the element...

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