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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) → SiCl4(g) spontaneous under standard conditions at 298.15 K? Answer this question by calculating ΔS°(system), ΔS°(surroundings), and ΔS°(universe). (Define reactants and products as the system.)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be identified that whether the given reaction is spontaneous at 298.15K by calculating  ΔS(system), ΔS(surroundings) and ΔS(universe) also the reactants and products should be defined as system.

Concept introduction:

The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔS(universe)= ΔS(system)+ΔS(surroundings)

The ΔS(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔS(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(system)=ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

The ΔS(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(surroundings)=ΔrHT

Here, ΔrHo is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Explanation

Given: Si(s) + 2Cl2(g)SiCl4(g)

The standard entropy of SiCl4(g) is 330.86 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy of Cl2(g) is 223.08 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy of Si(s) is 18.82 J/Kmol.

The standard enthalpy of SiCl4(g) is 662.75 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy of Cl2(g) is 0 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy of Si(s) is 0 kJ/mol.

The ΔS(universe) for the reaction Si(s) + 2Cl2(g)SiCl4(g) is calculated below.

The balanced chemical equation is:

  Si(s) + 2Cl2(g)SiCl4(g)

Calculation for ΔSo(system):

The  ΔS(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔS(system)=ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)=[(1 mol SiCl4(g)/mol-rxn)S°[SiCl4(g)](1 mol Si(s)/mol-rxn)S°[Si(s)]+(2 mol Cl2(g)/mol-rxn)S°[Cl2(g)]]

Substituting the above entropy values results to yield the entropy of the system.

  ΔS(system)=[(1 mol SiCl4(g)/mol-rxn)(330.86 J/Kmol)(1 mol Si(s)/mol-rxn)(18.82 J/Kmol)+(2 mol Cl2(g)/mol-rxn)(223.08 J/Kmol)]=134

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