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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Acetic acid, a weak acid, was added to a beaker containing water at 25 °C, giving a solution containing molecular acetic acid, hydronium ion, and acetate ion at equilibrium. The temperature did not change.

  1. (a) Is the solution process exothermic or endothermic?
  2. (b) Was the dissolving process and partial ionization spontaneous?
  3. (c) Did the entropy of the system increase or decrease?
  4. (d) Did the entropy of the universe increase or decrease?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Considering the given reaction and its conditions it should be identified that the process is exothermic or endothermic.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium.

Exothermic reaction: Exothermic reactions are those in which evolution of heat takes place during any chemical reaction. They release heat because the reactant molecules require less heat for breakage of bonds than the product molecules hence the reaction enthalpy will be negative value.

Endothermic reaction: Endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed during any chemical reaction. In such type of reactions, external energy is needed hence reaction enthalpy will be positive value.

Explanation

Acetic acid is a weak acid and dissociates in water giving acetate ion and hydronium ion. The chemical equation is:

    CH3COOHCH3COO<

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Considering the given reaction and its conditions it should be identified that whether the dissolving process and parital ionization spontaneous or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium.

Exothermic reaction: Exothermic reactions are those in which evolution of heat takes place during any chemical reaction. They release heat because the reactant molecules require less heat for breakage of bonds than the product molecules hence the reaction enthalpy will be negative value.

Endothermic reaction: Endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed during any chemical reaction. In such type of reactions, external energy is needed hence reaction enthalpy will be positive value.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Considering the given reaction and its conditions it should be identified that the whether the entropy of the system increase or decrease.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium.

Exothermic reaction: Exothermic reactions are those in which evolution of heat takes place during any chemical reaction. They release heat because the reactant molecules require less heat for breakage of bonds than the product molecules hence the reaction enthalpy will be negative value.

Endothermic reaction: Endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed during any chemical reaction. In such type of reactions, external energy is needed hence reaction enthalpy will be positive value.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Considering the given reaction and its conditions it should be identified that whether entropy of the universe increase or decrease.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium.

Exothermic reaction: Exothermic reactions are those in which evolution of heat takes place during any chemical reaction. They release heat because the reactant molecules require less heat for breakage of bonds than the product molecules hence the reaction enthalpy will be negative value.

Endothermic reaction: Endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed during any chemical reaction. In such type of reactions, external energy is needed hence reaction enthalpy will be positive value.

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