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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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. In each of the following reactions, identify which element is being oxidized and which is being reduced by assigning ox Idat ion numbers.

a. 4KClO 3 ( s ) + C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) 4KCl ( s ) + 6H 2 O ( l ) + 6CO 2 ( g )    b. 2C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25O 2 ( g ) 16CO 2 ( g ) + 18H 2 O ( l )    C. PCl 3 ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g ) PCl 5 ( g )    d. Ca ( s ) + H 2 ( g ) CaH 2 ( g )

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The atoms being oxidized and reduced should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

The atom which gains electrons in the reaction that is which gets reduced in the reaction is said to be the oxidizing agent also known as the electron acceptor whereas the atom which loses electrons in the reaction that is which gets oxidized in the reaction is said to be the reducing agent also known as the electron donor.

Explanation

Given:

4KClO3(s) + C6H12O6(s)  4KCl(s)+6H2O(l)+6CO2(g)

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

While determining the oxidation state of compound, the element with greater electronegativity is assigned with negative value of oxidation state which is equal to the charge as an anion in ionic compounds and element whose oxidation states are fixed are assigned. For compounds with no charge, the sum of oxidation states is zero.

The oxidation states are determined as:

The oxidation state for KClO3, C6H12O6(s), KCl, andCO2 the oxidation is determined as:

For KClO3 :

The oxidation state of K is assigned as + 1 and O is assigned as -2 and the oxidation state of Cl is assigned as x:

Since, KClO3 has no charge so; the sum of oxidation state must be zero

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The atoms being oxidized and reduced should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

The atom which gains electrons in the reaction that is which gets reduced in the reaction is said to be the oxidizing agent also known as the electron acceptor whereas the atom which loses electrons in the reaction that is which gets oxidized in the reaction is said to be the reducing agent also known as the electron donor.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

The atoms being oxidized and reduced should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

The atom which gains electrons in the reaction that is which gets reduced in the reaction is said to be the oxidizing agent also known as the electron acceptor whereas the atom which loses electrons in the reaction that is which gets oxidized in the reaction is said to be the reducing agent also known as the electron donor.

Interpretation Introduction

(d)

Interpretation:

The atoms being oxidized and reduced should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

The atom which gains electrons in the reaction that is which gets reduced in the reaction is said to be the oxidizing agent also known as the electron acceptor whereas the atom which loses electrons in the reaction that is which gets oxidized in the reaction is said to be the reducing agent also known as the electron donor.

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