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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Determine whether the reactions listed below are entropy-favored or disfavored under standard conditions. Predict how an increase in temperature will affect the value of ΔrG°.

  1. (a) I2(g) → 2 I(g)
  2. (b) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) → 2 SO3(g)
  3. (c) SiCl4(g) + 2 H2O() → SiO2(s) + 4 HCl(g)
  4. (d) P4(s, white) + 6 H2(g) → 4 PH3(g)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be determined that whether the given reaction is entropy favorable and should be identified that how increase in temperature will affect the value of ΔrGo.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

Here, ΔHo is the change in enthalpy and ΔSo is the change in entropy.

Entropy for any reaction is expressed as,

ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

A reaction is said to be entropy-favored if the value of entropy change for reaction is positive.

Explanation

The value of ΔrGoΔHo and ΔSo is calculated below.

Given:

The Appendix L referred for the values of standard entropies and enthalpies.

I2(g)2I(g)ΔfH°(kJ/mol)62.438106.838So(J/K×mol)260.69180.791

ΔrH°=fH°(products)fH°(reactants)=[(2 mol I(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[I(g)]-(1 mol I2(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[I2(g)] ] 

Substituting the respective values

ΔrH°=[(2 mol I(g)/mol-rxn)(106.838 kJ/mol)-(1 mol I2(g)/mol-rxn)(62.438 kJ/mol) ]=151

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be determined that whether the given reaction is entropy favorable and should be identified that how increase in temperature will affect the value of ΔrGo.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

Here, ΔHo is the change in enthalpy and ΔSo is the change in entropy.

Entropy for any reaction is expressed as,

ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

A reaction is said to be entropy-favoured if the value of entropy change for reaction is positive.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be determined that whether the given reaction is entropy favorable and should be identified that how increase in temperature will affect the value of ΔrGo.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

Here, ΔHo is the change in enthalpy and ΔSo is the change in entropy.

Entropy for any reaction is expressed as,

ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

A reaction is said to be entropy-favoured if the value of entropy change for reaction is positive.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be determined that whether the given reaction is entropy favorable and should be identified that how increase in temperature will affect the value of ΔrGo.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

Here, ΔHo is the change in enthalpy and ΔSo is the change in entropy.

Entropy for any reaction is expressed as,

ΔrS°=nS°(products)nS°(reactants)

A reaction is said to be entropy-favoured if the value of entropy change for reaction is positive.

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