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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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. Nitric acid is a very strong acid, but is also a very strong oxidizing agent, and generally behaves as the latter. It will dissolve many metals. Balance the following oxidation-reduction reactions of nitric acid.

a. Cu ( s ) + HNO 3 ( a q ) Cu 2+ ( a q ) + NO 2 ( g )    b. Mg ( s ) + HNO 3 ( a q ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + H 2 ( g )

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

The given oxidation-reduction reaction should be balanced using the half-reaction method.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation-reduction reaction is also known as a redox reaction. In this reaction, one reactant is oxidized and other is reduced. In balancing an oxidation-reduction reaction they must be first divided into two half reactions: one is oxidation reaction and other is reduction reaction.

The balancing of redox reaction is complicated as compared to simple balancing. It is necessary to determine the half reactions of reactants undergoing oxidation and reduction. On adding the two half-reactions, net total equation can be obtained. This method of balancing redox reaction is known as half equation method.

The following rules must be followed in balancing redox reaction by half equation method:

  1. Initially, redox reaction is separated into two half equations; oxidation and reduction.
  2. Atoms other than hydrogen and oxygen are balanced first in the unbalanced half equations.
  3. Oxygen atoms are balanced by addition of water on either side of the reaction.
  4. Hydrogen ion/s is added to balance the hydrogen atom.
  5. Electrons are added to balance the charge.
  6. Half reactions are added to get the net total equation.
  7. The further addition of hydroxide ion takes place on both side of the reaction, if the solution is basic in nature to neutralise the hydrogen ion present in the solution.
Explanation

The given reaction is as follows:

Cus+HNO3aqCu2+aq+NO2g

The above reaction can be separated as follows:

CusCu2+aq..... (1)

And,

HNO3aqNO2g...... (2)

The reaction (1) can be balanced by adding 2 electrons to the right side of the reaction arrow:

CusCu2+aq+2e...... (3)

Now, to balance reaction (2), first add 1 water molecule to the right thus,

HNO3aqNO2g+H2Ol

Now, second step is to balance the hydrogen atoms, 1 hydrogen ion is added to left thus,

HNO3aq+H+aqNO2g+H2Ol

Last step is to balance the charge thus, 1 electron is added to left as follows:

HNO3aq+H+aq+eNO2g+H2Ol

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The given oxidation-reduction reaction should be balanced using the half-reaction method.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation-reduction reaction is also known as a redox reaction. In this reaction, one reactant is oxidized and other is reduced. In balancing an oxidation-reduction reaction they must be first divided into two half reactions: one is oxidation reaction and other is reduction reaction.

The balancing of redox reaction is complicated as compared to simple balancing. It is necessary to determine the half reactions of reactants undergoing oxidation and reduction. On adding the two half-reactions, net total equation can be obtained. This method of balancing redox reaction is known as half equation method.

The following rules must be followed in balancing redox reaction by half equation method:

  1. Initially, redox reaction is separated into two half equations; oxidation and reduction.
  2. Atoms other than hydrogen and oxygen are balanced first in the unbalanced half equations.
  3. Oxygen atoms are balanced by addition of water on either side of the reaction.
  4. Hydrogen ion/s is added to balance the hydrogen atom.
  5. Electrons are added to balance the charge.
  6. Half reactions are added to get the net total equation.
  7. The further addition of hydroxide ion takes place on both side of the reaction, if the solution is basic in nature to neutralise the hydrogen ion present in the solution.

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