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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Identify the following processes as either spontaneous or not spontaneous.

  1. (a) Liquid water turns to ice when placed in a freezer at −5 °C.
  2. (b) Nitrogen gas is compressed to one half its original volume.
  3. (c) Sodium reacts with water forming H2(g) and NaOH(aq).
  4. (d) Slightly soluble CaSO4 [Ksp = 4.5 × 10−5) dissolves in water to form a saturated solution.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that whether placing liquid water in freezer at -5oC turns to ice is spontaneous process or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous, the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

Explanation

The process of turning water into ice produces a phase change from liquid to solid. Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that compression of nitrogen gas to one half of its original volume is spontaneous process or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that process of reaction of sodium with water is spontaneous process or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be identified that slightly soluble CaSO4 dissolves in water to form a saturated solution is spontaneous process or not.

Concept introduction: A process is referred to as spontaneous if the change occurs without any outside interference. The spontaneous change occurs in the direction of equilibrium. For the process to be spontaneous the entropy change should increase and the value of change in free energy should be negative.

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