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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 18, Problem 4RQ
Textbook Problem
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What is a nuclear transformation? How do you balance nuclear transformation reactions? Particle accelerators are used to perform nuclear transformations. What is a particle accelerator?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The definition of nuclear transformation and particle accelerator, method for balancing nuclear transformation reactions is to be stated.

Concept introduction: Nuclei of radioactive element decompose in various ways. There are two major categories. One involves a change in mass number of the decaying nucleus while others do not. Types of radioactive processes include α particle production, β particle production, γ ray production, electron capture and many others.

To determine: The definition of nuclear transformation, particle accelerator and method for balancing nuclear transformation reactions.

Explanation of Solution

The change of one element to another is known as nuclear transformation.

The process of change of one element into another by its bombardment with small nuclei, protons or neutron is known as nuclear transformation. It involves alpha particle emission, beta particle production, positron emission and electron capture.

The atomic number and mass numbers are conserved during the nuclear transformation reactions. By doing balancing atomic number and mass numbers of decaying nuclide and product nuclides, the nuclear transformation reactions are balanced out...

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 18 - When nuclei undergo nuclear transformations, rays...Ch. 18 - There is a trend in the United States toward using...Ch. 18 - Which type of radioactive decay has the net effect...Ch. 18 - Consider the following graph of binding energy per...Ch. 18 - What are transuranium elements and how are they...Ch. 18 - Scientists have estimated that the earths crust...Ch. 18 - Why are the observed energy changes for nuclear...Ch. 18 - Natural uranium is mostly nonfissionable 238U; it...Ch. 18 - Much of the research on controlled fusion focuses...Ch. 18 - A recent study concluded that any amount of...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing the radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Supply the missing particle, and state the type of...Ch. 18 - Write balanced equations for each of the processes...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing Ute radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes a series of -particle and,...Ch. 18 - The radioactive isotope 247Bk decays by a series...Ch. 18 - One type of commercial smoke detector contains a...Ch. 18 - Thorium-232 is known to undergo a progressive...Ch. 18 - There are four stable isotopes of iron with mass...Ch. 18 - The only stable isotope of fluorine is...Ch. 18 - In 1994 it was proposed (and eventually accepted)...Ch. 18 - Many elements have been synthesized by bombarding...Ch. 18 - The rate constant for a certain radioactive...Ch. 18 - Americium-241 is widely used in smoke detectors....Ch. 18 - Krypton consists of several radioactive isotopes,...Ch. 18 - Radioactive copper-64 decays with a half-life of...Ch. 18 - A chemist wishing to do an experiment requiring...Ch. 18 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 18 - The first atomic explosion was detonated in the...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 is used in the diagnosis and treatment...Ch. 18 - Technetium-99 has been used as a radiographic...Ch. 18 - Phosphorus-32 is a commonly used radioactive...Ch. 18 - The bromine-82 nucleus has a half-life of 1.0 103...Ch. 18 - Fresh rainwater or surface water contains enough...Ch. 18 - A living plant contains approximately the same...Ch. 18 - Assume a constant 14C/12C ratio of 13.6 counts per...Ch. 18 - A rock contains 0.688 mg 206Pb for every 1.000 mg...Ch. 18 - The mass ratios of 40Ar to 40K also can be used to...Ch. 18 - The sun radiates 3.9 1023 J of energy into space...Ch. 18 - The earth receives 1.8 1014 kJ/s of solar energy....Ch. 18 - Many transuranium elements, such as plutonium-232,...Ch. 18 - The most stable nucleus in terms of binding energy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy in J/nucleon for...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for H12...Ch. 18 - The mass defect for a lithium-6 nucleus is 0.03434...Ch. 18 - The binding energy per nucleon for magnesium-27 is...Ch. 18 - Calculate the amount of energy released per gram...Ch. 18 - The easiest fusion reaction to initiate is...Ch. 18 - The typical response of a Geiger-Mller tube is...Ch. 18 - When using a Geiger-Mller counter to measure...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction to produce methyl...Ch. 18 - A chemist studied the reaction mechanism for the...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes many different fission...Ch. 18 - Breeder reactors are used to convert the...Ch. 18 - Which do you think would be the greater health...Ch. 18 - Consider the following information: i. The layer...Ch. 18 - Predict whether each of the following nuclides is...Ch. 18 - Each of the following isotopes has been used...Ch. 18 - The mass percent of carbon in a typical human is...Ch. 18 - At a flea market, youve found a very interesting...Ch. 18 - Define third-life in a similar way to half-life,...Ch. 18 - A proposed system for storing nuclear wastes...Ch. 18 - During World War II, tritium (3H) was a component...Ch. 18 - A positron and an electron can annihilate each...Ch. 18 - A small atomic bomb releases energy equivalent to...Ch. 18 - During the research that led to production of the...Ch. 18 - Using the kinetic molecular theory (see Section...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction, which can take...Ch. 18 - Photosynthesis in plants can be represented by the...Ch. 18 - Strontium-90 and radon-222 both pose serious...Ch. 18 - Complete the following table with the nuclear...Ch. 18 - A certain radioactive nuclide has a half-life of...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8.0 days. How many...Ch. 18 - Rubidium-87 decays by -particle production to...Ch. 18 - Given the following information: Mass of proton =...Ch. 18 - Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true?...Ch. 18 - Naturally occurring uranium is composed mostly of...Ch. 18 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 18 - A 0.10-cm3 sample of a solution containing a...Ch. 18 - Zirconium is one of the few metals that retains...Ch. 18 - In addition to the process described in the text,...Ch. 18 - The most significant source of natural radiation...Ch. 18 - To determine the Ksp value of Hg2I2, a chemist...Ch. 18 - Estimate the temperature needed to achieve the...Ch. 18 - A reported synthesis of the transuranium element...Ch. 18 - Radioactive cobalt-60 is used to study defects in...

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