Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an organic compound, is an industrially important reaction. Calculate ΔrH°, ΔrS°, and ΔrG° for the hydrogenation of octene, C8H16, to give octane, C8H19 at 25 °C. Is the reaction product- or reactant-favored at equilibrium?

C8H16(g) + H2(g) → C8H18(g)

Along with data in Appendix L, the following information is needed for this calculation.


Interpretation Introduction


The value of ΔrH°,ΔrS° and ΔrG for the hydrogenation of octene should be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔrG. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,


Here, ΔrH is the change in enthalpy and ΔrS is the change in entropy.


The value of ΔrH°, ΔrS° and ΔrG for the hydrogenation of octane is calculated below.



ΔrH°=nΔfH°(products)nΔfH°(reactants)=[(1 mol C8H18(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[C8H18(g)][(1 mol C8H16(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[C8H16(g)]+(1 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[H2(g)]] ] 

Substituting the values,

ΔrH°=[(1 mol C8H18(g)/mol-rxn)(208.45 kJ/mol)[(1 mol C8H16(g)/mol-rxn)(82.93 kJ/mol)+(1 mol H2(g)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)] ]=291

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