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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 56GQ
Textbook Problem
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Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of methane by O2(g).

CH4(Mg) + ½O2(g) ⇄ CH3OH()

  1. (a) Determine ΔS°(system), ΔS°(surroundings), and ΔS°(universe) for this process.
  2. (b) Is this reaction product-favored at equilibrium at 25 °C?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of ΔSo(universe), ΔSo(system) and ΔSo(surroundings) for formation of methanol should be determined.

Concept introduction:

The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔSo(universe)= ΔSo(system)+ΔSo(surroundings)

The ΔSo(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(system)rS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)

The ΔSo(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(surroundings)=rHoT

Here, ΔrHo is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

Explanation of Solution

The ΔSo(universe) for the formation of methanol is calculated below.

Given:

The Appendix L referred for the values of standard entropies and enthalpies.

The standard entropy of CH4(g) is 186.26 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy of O2(g) is 205.07 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy of CH3OH(l) is 127.19 J/Kmol.

The standard enthalpy of CH4(g) is 74.87 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy of O2(g) is 0 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy of CH3OH(l) is 238.4 kJ/mol.

The balanced chemical equation is:

  CH4(g) + 12O2(g)CH3OH(l)

Calculation of ΔSo(system):

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

ΔS(system)=ΔrS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)=[(1 mol CH3OH(l)/mol-rxn)S°[CH3OH(l)]-[(1 mol CH4(g)/mol-rxn)S°[CH4(g)]+(0.5 mol O2(g)/mol-rxn)S°[O2(g)]]]

Substituting the respective values

ΔSo(system)=[(1 mol CH3OH(l)/mol-rxn)(127.19 J/K×mol)-[(1 mol CH4(g)/mol-rxn)(186.26 J/K×mol)+(0.5 mol O2(g)/mol-rxn)(205.07 J/K×mol)]]=-161

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be identified that the given reaction is product favoured at equilibrium or not at 25oC.

Concept introduction:

The universe consists of two parts, systems and surroundings. The entropy change for the universe is the sum of entropy change for the system and for surroundings.

  ΔSo(universe)= ΔSo(system)+ΔSo(surroundings)

The ΔSo(universe) should be greater than zero for a spontaneous process.

The  ΔSo(system) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(system)rS°nS°(products)-nS°(reactants)

The ΔSo(surroundings) can be calculated by the following expression,

  ΔSo(surroundings)=rHoT

Here, ΔrHo is the enthalpy change for the reaction.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) a...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) SiCl4(g)...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 H2(g) SiH4(g)...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the decomposition of 1...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the formation of 1 mol...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - For the reaction BaCO3(s) BaO(s) + CO2(g), rG =...Ch. 18 - For the reaction TiCl2(s) + Cl2(g) TiCl4(), rG =...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Heating some metal carbonates, among them...Ch. 18 - Calculate rH and rS for the reaction of tin(IV)...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements at...Ch. 18 - For the decomposition of solid calcium carbonate...Ch. 18 - Compare the compounds in each set below and decide...Ch. 18 - Using standard entropy values, calculate rS for...Ch. 18 - About 5 billion kilograms of benzene, C6H6, are...Ch. 18 - Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an...Ch. 18 - Is the combustion of ethane, C2H6, product-favored...Ch. 18 - Write a balanced equation that depicts the...Ch. 18 - When vapors from hydrochloric acid and aqueous...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(system), S(surroundings), and...Ch. 18 - Methanol is now widely used as a fuel in race...Ch. 18 - The enthalpy of vaporization of liquid diethyl...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change, rS, for the...Ch. 18 - Using thermodynamic data, estimate the normal...Ch. 18 - The following reaction is reactant-favored at...Ch. 18 - When calcium carbonate is heated strongly, CO2 gas...Ch. 18 - Sodium reacts violently with water according to...Ch. 18 - Yeast can produce ethanol by the fermentation of...Ch. 18 - Elemental boron, in the form of thin fibers, can...Ch. 18 - Estimate the vapor pressure of ethanol at 37 C...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant, Kp, for N2O4(g) 2...Ch. 18 - Estimate the boiling point of water in Denver,...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant for the butane ...Ch. 18 - A crucial reaction for the production of synthetic...Ch. 18 - 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