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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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For each of the following oxidation-reduction reactions, identify which element is being oxidized and which is being reduced.

a. Ca ( s ) + 2 H 2 O ( l ) Ca ( OH ) 2 ( s , a q ) + H 2 ( g )

b. H 2 ( g ) + F 2 ( g ) 2 HF ( g )

c. 4Fe ( s ) + 3O 2 ( g ) 2 Fe 2 O 3 ( s )

d. 2Fe ( s ) + 3Cl 2 ( g ) 2 FeCl 3 ( s )

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element being oxidized and reduced in the given reaction should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

Explanation

Given:

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(s,  aq) + H2(g)

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

While determining the oxidation state of compound, the element with greater electronegativity is assigned with negative value of oxidation state which is equal to the charge as an anion in ionic compounds and element whose oxidation states are fixed are assigned. For compounds with no charge, the sum of oxidation states is zero.

The oxidation states are determined as:

Since, Ca and H2 are in its stable elemental state so, the oxidation state of each is zero for H2 O and Ca(OH)2 the oxidation is determined as:

For H2 O:

The oxidation state of O is assigned as -2 and the oxidation state of H is assigned as x:

Since, H2 O has no charge so; the sum of oxidation state must be zero

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element being oxidized and reduced in the given reaction should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element being oxidized and reduced in the given reaction should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element being oxidized and reduced in the given reaction should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation state is defined as the charge(s) that an atom would have when electron(s) were transferred completely from a molecule or ion.

The element being oxidized is the one whose oxidation increases in the reaction whereas the reduced element is the one whose oxidation number decreases in the reaction.

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