Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425



Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem

In balancing oxidation-reduction equations, why is it permissible to add water to either side of the equation?

Interpretation Introduction


The reason for permission to add water to either side of the equation while balancing an oxidation-reduction equation should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

The oxidation-reduction reaction is also known as a redox reaction. In this reaction, one reactant is oxidized and other is reduced. In balancing an oxidation-reduction reaction they must be first divided into two half reactions: one is oxidation reaction and other is reduction reaction.

The balancing of redox reaction is complicated as compared to simple balancing. It is necessary to determine the half reactions of reactants undergoing oxidation and reduction. On adding the two half-reactions, net total equation can be obtained. This method of balancing redox reaction is known as half equation method.

The following rules must be followed in balancing redox reaction by half equation method:

  1. Initially, redox reaction is separated into two half equations; oxidation and reduction.
  2. Atoms other than hydrogen and oxygen are balanced first in the unbalanced half equations.
  3. Oxygen atoms are balanced by addition of water on either side of the reaction.
  4. Hydrogen ion/s is added to balance the hydrogen atom.
  5. Electrons are added to balance the charge.
  6. Half reactions are added to get the net total equation.
  7. The further addition of hydroxide ion takes place on both side of the reaction, if the solution is basic in nature to neutralise the hydrogen ion present in the solution.

The oxidation and reduction can be identified by change in oxidation state. If oxidation state of atom of an element increases, it undergoes oxidation and if it decreases, it undergoes reduction.

The general oxidation and reduction half reactions are as follows:


Here, As undergoes oxidation to form A+aq with release of 1 electron. The oxidation state of A increases from 0 to 1

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Show all chapter solutions add

Additional Science Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

What are the moral implications of using alcohol during pregnancy?

Understanding Nutrition (MindTap Course List)

Which of the following vitamins are classified as fat-soluble? a. vitamins B and D b. vitamins A, D, E, and K c...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What are the actions of testosterone?

Biology (MindTap Course List)

What are genomes?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

Helium gas is in thermal equilibrium with liquid helium at 4.20 K. Even though it is on the point of condensati...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)