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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Indicate which of the following processes are reversible.

  1. (a) Nitrogen gas expands into a vacuum.
  2. (b) Dry ice, CO2(s), sublimes at 25 °C and 1.0 atm.
  3. (c) Energy as heat is added to a mixture of ice and water at 0 °C, causing some of the ice to melt.
  4. (d) Methanol and ethanol mix forming a homogeneous solution.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether expanding of nitrogen gas into vaccum is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involve non-equilibrium constants and are therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

Explanation

The process of expansion of gas in vacuum occurs by itself and no energy is gained or lost by the surroundings. Thus, no work is done in this process.

However, in order to return to the initial state compression of the gas has to be done...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether sublimation of ice at 5oCand1.0atm is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether additon of heat to ice and water mixture results in formation of more water is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be predicted that whether mixture of methanol or ethanol forming homogeneous solution is reversible or not.

Concept introduction: Reversible process are those process in which it is possible to return to the initial point, by the same path along which the change is carried out.

For a reversible process, the system should remain in equilibrium. However, spontaneous process involves non-equilibrium constants and is therefore irreversible.

For an irreversible process, the system can be brought to the initial point but there occurs a change in the surroundings.

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