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The most significant source of natural radiation is radon-222. 222 Rn, a decay product of 238 U, is continuously generated in the earth’s crust, allowing gaseous Rn to seep into the basements of buildings. Because 222 Rn is an α -particle producer with a relatively short half-life of 3.82 days, it can cause biological damage when inhaled. a. How many α particles and β particles are produced when 238 U decays to 222 Rn? What nuclei are produced when 222 Rn decays? b. Radon is a noble gas so one would expect it to pass through the body quickly. Why is there a concern over inhaling 222 Rn? c. Another problem associated with 222 Rn is that the decay of 222 Rn produces a more potent α -particle producer ( t 1/2 = 3.11 min) that is a solid. What is the identity of the solid? Give the balanced equation of this species decaying by α -particle production. Why is the solid a more potent α -particle producer? d. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that 222 Rn levels not exceed 4 pCi per liter of air (1 Ci = 1 curie = 3.7 × 10 10 decay events per second; 1 pCi = 1 × 10 −12 Ci). Convert 4.0 pCi per liter of air into concentrations units of 222 Rn atoms per liter of air and moles of 222 Rn per liter of air.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 18, Problem 84CP
Textbook Problem
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The most significant source of natural radiation is radon-222. 222Rn, a decay product of 238U, is continuously generated in the earth’s crust, allowing gaseous Rn to seep into the basements of buildings. Because 222Rn is an α-particle producer with a relatively short half-life of 3.82 days, it can cause biological damage when inhaled.

a. How many α particles and β particles are produced when 238U decays to 222Rn? What nuclei are produced when 222Rn decays?

b. Radon is a noble gas so one would expect it to pass through the body quickly. Why is there a concern over inhaling 222Rn?

c. Another problem associated with 222Rn is that the decay of 222Rn produces a more potent α-particle producer (t1/2 = 3.11 min) that is a solid. What is the identity of the solid? Give the balanced equation of this species decaying by α-particle production. Why is the solid a more potent α-particle producer?

d. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that 222Rn levels not exceed 4 pCi per liter of air (1 Ci = 1 curie = 3.7 × 1010 decay events per second; 1 pCi = 1 × 10−12 Ci). Convert 4.0 pCi per liter of air into concentrations units of 222Rn atoms per liter of air and moles of 222Rn per liter of air.

 (a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of αandβ particles produced and the nuclei produced during the complete decay series is to be stated.  Reason for the concern over inhaling radon gas, the solid produced during its decay and its balanced chemical equation is to be stated. 4pCi per liter of air into concentration units of radon per liter of air and moles of radon per liter of air is to be converted.

Concept introduction: A process through which an unstable nuclide loses its energy due to excess of protons or neutrons is known as radioactive decay.

To determine: The number of α and β particles produced during the complete decay series.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The number of α and β particles produced are 4_ and 2_ .

The mass number of 92238U is 238 and the mass number of 86222Rn is 222. The difference in mass number is 238222=16

The number of alpha particles is calculated by the formula,

Alphaparticles=Differenceinmassnumber4

Therefore, the alpha particles are 164=4 .

The atomic number of 92238U is 92 and the mass number of 86222Rn is 86

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of αandβ particles produced and the nuclei produced during the complete decay series is to be stated.  Reason for the concern over inhaling radon gas, the solid produced during its decay and its balanced chemical equation is to be stated. 4pCi per liter of air into concentration units of radon per liter of air and moles of radon per liter of air is to be converted.

Concept introduction: A process through which an unstable nuclide loses its energy due to excess of protons or neutrons is known as radioactive decay.

To determine: The reason for the concern over inhaling radon gas.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of αandβ particles produced and the nuclei produced during the complete decay series is to be stated.  Reason for the concern over inhaling radon gas, the solid produced during its decay and its balanced chemical equation is to be stated. 4pCi per liter of air into concentration units of radon per liter of air and moles of radon per liter of air is to be converted.

Concept introduction: A process through which an unstable nuclide loses its energy due to excess of protons or neutrons is known as radioactive decay.

To determine: The solid produced during the decay of radon and its balanced chemical equation.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The number of αandβ particles produced and the nuclei produced during the complete decay series is to be stated.  Reason for the concern over inhaling radon gas, the solid produced during its decay and its balanced chemical equation is to be stated. 4pCi per liter of air into concentration units of radon per liter of air and moles of radon per liter of air is to be converted.

Concept introduction: A process through which an unstable nuclide loses its energy due to excess of protons or neutrons is known as radioactive decay.

To determine: The conversion of 4pCi per liter of air into concentration units of radon per liter of air and moles of radon per liter of air.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 18 - When nuclei undergo nuclear transformations, rays...Ch. 18 - There is a trend in the United States toward using...Ch. 18 - Which type of radioactive decay has the net effect...Ch. 18 - Consider the following graph of binding energy per...Ch. 18 - What are transuranium elements and how are they...Ch. 18 - Scientists have estimated that the earths crust...Ch. 18 - Why are the observed energy changes for nuclear...Ch. 18 - Natural uranium is mostly nonfissionable 238U; it...Ch. 18 - Much of the research on controlled fusion focuses...Ch. 18 - A recent study concluded that any amount of...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing the radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Supply the missing particle, and state the type of...Ch. 18 - Write balanced equations for each of the processes...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing Ute radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes a series of -particle and,...Ch. 18 - The radioactive isotope 247Bk decays by a series...Ch. 18 - One type of commercial smoke detector contains a...Ch. 18 - Thorium-232 is known to undergo a progressive...Ch. 18 - There are four stable isotopes of iron with mass...Ch. 18 - The only stable isotope of fluorine is...Ch. 18 - In 1994 it was proposed (and eventually accepted)...Ch. 18 - Many elements have been synthesized by bombarding...Ch. 18 - The rate constant for a certain radioactive...Ch. 18 - Americium-241 is widely used in smoke detectors....Ch. 18 - Krypton consists of several radioactive isotopes,...Ch. 18 - Radioactive copper-64 decays with a half-life of...Ch. 18 - A chemist wishing to do an experiment requiring...Ch. 18 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 18 - The first atomic explosion was detonated in the...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 is used in the diagnosis and treatment...Ch. 18 - Technetium-99 has been used as a radiographic...Ch. 18 - Phosphorus-32 is a commonly used radioactive...Ch. 18 - The bromine-82 nucleus has a half-life of 1.0 103...Ch. 18 - Fresh rainwater or surface water contains enough...Ch. 18 - A living plant contains approximately the same...Ch. 18 - Assume a constant 14C/12C ratio of 13.6 counts per...Ch. 18 - A rock contains 0.688 mg 206Pb for every 1.000 mg...Ch. 18 - The mass ratios of 40Ar to 40K also can be used to...Ch. 18 - The sun radiates 3.9 1023 J of energy into space...Ch. 18 - The earth receives 1.8 1014 kJ/s of solar energy....Ch. 18 - Many transuranium elements, such as plutonium-232,...Ch. 18 - The most stable nucleus in terms of binding energy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy in J/nucleon for...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for H12...Ch. 18 - The mass defect for a lithium-6 nucleus is 0.03434...Ch. 18 - The binding energy per nucleon for magnesium-27 is...Ch. 18 - Calculate the amount of energy released per gram...Ch. 18 - The easiest fusion reaction to initiate is...Ch. 18 - The typical response of a Geiger-Mller tube is...Ch. 18 - When using a Geiger-Mller counter to measure...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction to produce methyl...Ch. 18 - A chemist studied the reaction mechanism for the...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes many different fission...Ch. 18 - Breeder reactors are used to convert the...Ch. 18 - Which do you think would be the greater health...Ch. 18 - Consider the following information: i. The layer...Ch. 18 - Predict whether each of the following nuclides is...Ch. 18 - Each of the following isotopes has been used...Ch. 18 - The mass percent of carbon in a typical human is...Ch. 18 - At a flea market, youve found a very interesting...Ch. 18 - Define third-life in a similar way to half-life,...Ch. 18 - A proposed system for storing nuclear wastes...Ch. 18 - During World War II, tritium (3H) was a component...Ch. 18 - A positron and an electron can annihilate each...Ch. 18 - A small atomic bomb releases energy equivalent to...Ch. 18 - During the research that led to production of the...Ch. 18 - Using the kinetic molecular theory (see Section...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction, which can take...Ch. 18 - Photosynthesis in plants can be represented by the...Ch. 18 - Strontium-90 and radon-222 both pose serious...Ch. 18 - Complete the following table with the nuclear...Ch. 18 - A certain radioactive nuclide has a half-life of...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8.0 days. 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