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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

A disproportionation reaction involves a substance that acts as both an oxidizing and a reducing agent, producing higher and lower oxidation states of the same element in the products. Which of the following disproportionation reactions are spontaneous under standard conditions? Calculate Δ and K at 25°C for those reactions that are spontaneous under standard conditions.

a. 2 Cu + ( a q ) Cu 2 + ( a q ) + Cu ( s )

b. 3 Fe 2 + ( a q ) 2 Fe 3 + ( a q ) + Fe ( s )

c. HClO 2 ( a q ) ClO 3 ( a q ) + HClO ( a q ) (unbalanced)

Use the half-reactions:

Chapter 18, Problem 86E, A disproportionation reaction involves a substance that acts as both an oxidizing and a reducing

 (a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The information regarding the disproportionation reaction is given. Various questions based on the spontaneity are to be answered and the calculation of ΔG° and K is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

The relationship between reduction potential and standard reduction potential value and activities of species present in an electrochemical cell at a given temperature is given by the Nernst equation.

The value of Ecell is calculated using Nernst formula,

E=E°(RTnF)ln(Q)

At room temperature the above equation is specified as,

E=E°(0.0591n)log(Q)

To determine: The spontaneity of the given reaction (a) and further calculation of ΔG° and K .

Explanation

Given

The disproportionation reaction is,

2Cu+(aq)Cu2+(aq)+Cu(s)

The reaction taking place at cathode is,

Cu+(aq)+eCu(s)E°red=0.52V

The reaction taking place at anode is,

Cu+(aq)Cu2+(aq)+eE°ox=0.16V

Add both the oxidation and reduction half-reaction,

Cu+(aq)+eCu(s)Cu+(aq)Cu2+(aq)+e

The final equation is,

2Cu+(aq)Cu2+(aq)+Cu(s)

The overall cell potential is calculated as,

E°cell=E°ox+E°red=0.16V+0.52V=0.36V

The relationship between cell potential and Gibbs free energy change is given by the formula,

ΔG°=nFE°cell

Where,

  • ΔG° is the Gibbs free energy change at the standard conditions.
  • n is the number of electrons involved in the reaction.
  • F is the Faraday’s constant.
  • E°cell is the cell potential at the standard condition.

As the value of E°cell comes out to be positive then ΔG° becomes negative. Therefore it leads to a spontaneous reaction.

The relationship between cell potential and Gibbs free energy change is given by the formula,

ΔG°=nFE°cell

The reaction involves the transfer of 1mole

Substitute the values of n , E°cell and F in the above equation as,

ΔG°=1×96,485×0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The information regarding the disproportionation reaction is given. Various questions based on the spontaneity are to be answered and the calculation of ΔG° and K is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

The relationship between reduction potential and standard reduction potential value and activities of species present in an electrochemical cell at a given temperature is given by the Nernst equation.

The value of Ecell is calculated using Nernst formula,

E=E°(RTnF)ln(Q)

At room temperature the above equation is specified as,

E=E°(0.0591n)log(Q)

To determine: The spontaneity of the given reaction (b) and the value of ΔG° and K if the reaction is spontaneous.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The information regarding the disproportionation reaction is given. Various questions based on the spontaneity are to be answered and the calculation of ΔG° and K is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

The relationship between reduction potential and standard reduction potential value and activities of species present in an electrochemical cell at a given temperature is given by the Nernst equation.

The value of Ecell is calculated using Nernst formula,

E=E°(RTnF)ln(Q)

At room temperature the above equation is specified as,

E=E°(0.0591n)log(Q)

To determine: The spontaneity of the given reaction (c) and further calculation of ΔG° and K if the reaction is spontaneous.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

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Ch-18 P-2ALQCh-18 P-3ALQCh-18 P-4ALQCh-18 P-5ALQCh-18 P-6ALQCh-18 P-7ALQCh-18 P-8ALQCh-18 P-9ALQCh-18 P-10ALQCh-18 P-11ALQCh-18 P-12ALQCh-18 P-13ALQCh-18 P-14ALQCh-18 P-15RORRCh-18 P-16RORRCh-18 P-17RORRCh-18 P-18RORRCh-18 P-19QCh-18 P-20QCh-18 P-21QCh-18 P-22QCh-18 P-23QCh-18 P-24QCh-18 P-25QCh-18 P-26QCh-18 P-27QCh-18 P-28QCh-18 P-29ECh-18 P-30ECh-18 P-31ECh-18 P-32ECh-18 P-33ECh-18 P-34ECh-18 P-35ECh-18 P-36ECh-18 P-37ECh-18 P-38ECh-18 P-39ECh-18 P-40ECh-18 P-41ECh-18 P-42ECh-18 P-43ECh-18 P-44ECh-18 P-45ECh-18 P-46ECh-18 P-47ECh-18 P-48ECh-18 P-49ECh-18 P-50ECh-18 P-51ECh-18 P-52ECh-18 P-53ECh-18 P-54ECh-18 P-55ECh-18 P-56ECh-18 P-57ECh-18 P-58ECh-18 P-59ECh-18 P-60ECh-18 P-61ECh-18 P-62ECh-18 P-63ECh-18 P-64ECh-18 P-65ECh-18 P-66ECh-18 P-68ECh-18 P-69ECh-18 P-70ECh-18 P-71ECh-18 P-72ECh-18 P-73ECh-18 P-74ECh-18 P-75ECh-18 P-76ECh-18 P-77ECh-18 P-78ECh-18 P-79ECh-18 P-80ECh-18 P-81ECh-18 P-82ECh-18 P-83ECh-18 P-84ECh-18 P-85ECh-18 P-86ECh-18 P-87ECh-18 P-88ECh-18 P-89ECh-18 P-90ECh-18 P-91ECh-18 P-92ECh-18 P-93ECh-18 P-94ECh-18 P-95ECh-18 P-96ECh-18 P-97ECh-18 P-98ECh-18 P-99ECh-18 P-100ECh-18 P-101ECh-18 P-102ECh-18 P-103ECh-18 P-104ECh-18 P-105ECh-18 P-106ECh-18 P-107ECh-18 P-108ECh-18 P-109ECh-18 P-110ECh-18 P-111ECh-18 P-112ECh-18 P-113AECh-18 P-114AECh-18 P-115AECh-18 P-116AECh-18 P-117AECh-18 P-118AECh-18 P-119AECh-18 P-120AECh-18 P-121AECh-18 P-122AECh-18 P-123AECh-18 P-124AECh-18 P-125AECh-18 P-126AECh-18 P-127AECh-18 P-128AECh-18 P-129AECh-18 P-130AECh-18 P-131AECh-18 P-132AECh-18 P-133AECh-18 P-134CWPCh-18 P-135CWPCh-18 P-136CWPCh-18 P-137CWPCh-18 P-138CWPCh-18 P-139CWPCh-18 P-140CPCh-18 P-141CPCh-18 P-142CPCh-18 P-143CPCh-18 P-144CPCh-18 P-145CPCh-18 P-146CPCh-18 P-147CPCh-18 P-148CPCh-18 P-149CPCh-18 P-150CPCh-18 P-151CPCh-18 P-152CPCh-18 P-153CPCh-18 P-154CPCh-18 P-155IPCh-18 P-156IPCh-18 P-157IPCh-18 P-158IPCh-18 P-159MPCh-18 P-160MP

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