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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Explain why each of the following statements is incorrect.

  1. (a) Entropy increases in all spontaneous reactions.
  2. (b) Reactions with a negative free energy change (ΔrG° < 0) are product-favored and occur with rapid transformation of reactants to products.
  3. (c) All spontaneous processes are exothermic.
  4. (d) Endothermic processes are never spontaneous.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be explained that why the given statement is incorrect.

Concept introduction:

Spontaneous reactions are referred to those that have negative free energy formation. The spontaneous reactions favors the product formation. . The expression is,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

The value of ΔrGo should be negative.

The reactions can be classified as exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions are those in which heat is liberated whereas the endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed.

Explanation

It is not justified to say that every reaction in which entropy increases is spontaneous. There may be reactions in which the reaction has negative entropy and is entropy-disfavoured but it is still spontaneous because it can be enthalpy driven especially at low temperatures...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be explained that why the given statement is incorrect.

Concept introduction:

Spontaneous reactions are referred to those that have negative free energy formation. The spontaneous reactions favors the product formation. . The expression is,

  ΔrGorHo-TΔrSo   

The value of ΔrGo should be negative.

The reactions can be classified as exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions are those in which heat is liberated whereas the endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be explained that why the given statement is incorrect.

Concept introduction:

Spontaneous reactions are referred to those that have negative free energy formation. The spontaneous reactions favors the product formation. . The expression is,

  ΔGo= ΔHo-TΔSo

The value of ΔGo should be negative.

The reactions can be classified as exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions are those in which heat is liberated whereas the endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be explained that why the given statement is incorrect.

Concept introduction:

Spontaneous reactions are referred to those that have negative free energy formation. The spontaneous reactions favors the product formation. . The expression is,

  ΔGo= ΔHo-TΔSo

The value of ΔGo should be negative.

The reactions can be classified as exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions are those in which heat is liberated whereas the endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed.

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