   Chapter 18.3, Problem 18.1CYU

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Predict which substance in each pair has the higher entropy and explain your reasoning. (a) O2(g) or O3(g) (b) SnCl4(ℓ) or⇄ SnCl4(g)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be explained that which substance in the given O2(g)or O3(g) pair will have higher entropy.

Concept introduction:

Entroy: Entropy is a measure of the randomness of the system. It is a thermodynamic quantity and an extensive property. It is represented by the symbol S. It can also be defined as the degree of energy dispersal. More the dispersal in energy, more is the value of entropy.

Entropy generally decreases in the order of gas>liquid>solid. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles.

Entropy is greater for larger molecules. A larger molecule can rotate and vibrate in more ways due to which there is a large number of microstates over which energy can be distributed. Therefore, number of microstates increases the entropy of the system also increases.

Explanation

O2 and O3 both are in gaseous state. Analysing the given pair O3 is larger than O2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It should be explained that which substance in the given SnCl4(l)or SnCl4(g) pair will have higher entropy.

Concept introduction:

Entroy: Entropy is a measure of the randomness of the system. It is a thermodynamic quantity and an extensive property. It is represented by the symbol S. It can also be defined as the degree of energy dispersal. More the dispersal in energy, more is the value of entropy.

Entropy generally decreases in the order of gas>liquid>solid. In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles.

Entropy is greater for larger molecules. A larger molecule can rotate and vibrate in more ways due to which there is a large number of microstates over which energy can be distributed. Therefore, number of microstates increases the entropy of the system also increases.

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